Biomimicry, Butterflies, and Bank Fraud by Eric Lyons, M.Min.



Biomimicry, Butterflies, and Bank Fraud

by  Eric Lyons, M.Min.

From cocklebur-inspired Velcro® to robotic lobsters, scientists are increasingly looking to imitate the wonders of life. In the field of biomimicry (derived from the Greek words bios, meaning “life,” and mimesis, meaning “to imitate”) scientists, researchers, and engineers worldwide turn their attention to God’s creation to inspire new, intricately designed, man-made products to improve human life and solve various dilemmas.

Recently, professors Mathias Kolle and Ullrich Baumberg of the University of Cambridge studied the microscopic structures in the wing scales of the Swallowtail butterfly in hopes of mimicking its magnificent colors (see “Vivid...,” 2010). The colors of these tropical butterflies are strikingly bright because of the shape of the microscopic structures and because “they are made up of alternate layers of cuticle and air” (“Vivid...”). Amazingly, Kolle and Baumberg have been successful at making “structurally identical copies of the butterfly scales,” purportedly even with “the same vivid colours as the butterflies’ wings.” How exactly do Kolle and Baumberg believe these “color copies” could be used for the benefit of mankind? They believe the artificial structures “could be used to encrypt information in optical signatures on bank notes or other valuable items to protect them against forgery.... [W]e could see structures based on butterflies’ wings shining from a...note or even our passports.”

It is entirely appropriate for scientists to look to nature for the inspiration of their inventions. After all, “the whole Earth is full of His [God’s] glory” (Isaiah 6:3, emp. added). The infinite, omniscient Creator made marvelous, living creatures, including butterflies, for man to use, study, and learn from in this life (Genesis 1:28). Sadly, many scientists today refuse to consider the most important thing to be learned from all of the animals and plants they study and seek to imitate: they all declare the glory of God. Nature did not assemble itself (as Kolle proposed in his discussion of the Swallowtail butterfly). Mindless matter and the random, chance processes of evolution fail on every account to explain the intricate design of even the smallest of living creatures. The designs in nature that intelligent human beings seek to copy demand an adequate explanation; they demand a grand Designer.

For every house is built by someone, but He who built all things is God (Hebrews 3:4).

For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even His eternal power and Godhead, so that they are without excuse (Romans 1:20).


“Vivid Colours of Butterflies Could Help Cut Bank Fraud” (2010), The Economic Times, May 31, http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/news-by-industry/et-cetera/Vivid-colours-of-butterflies-could-help-cut-bank-fraud/articleshow/5993979.cms.

Biologist Uses His Free Will to Reject Free Will by Kyle Butt, M.Div.



Biologist Uses His Free Will to Reject Free Will

by  Kyle Butt, M.Div.

Anthony Cashmore, biologist at the University of Pennsylvania, recently wrote an article alleging that human free will does not exist. He wrote: “It is my belief that, as more attention is given to the mechanisms that govern human behavior, it will increasingly be seen that the concept of free will is an illusion” (2010). According to Cashmore, you are reading this article because your genes and your environment have forced you to sit in front of your computer. You are not responsible for your decision to read this article, and, based on your alleged evolutionary history and your environment, you could not choose to be doing anything different than what you are doing now. You are literally a slave to your genes and your environment. As Cashmore wrote: “[A]n individual cannot be held responsible for either his genes or his environment. From this simple analysis, surely it follows that individuals cannot logically be held responsible for their behavior” (2010).

A response to such a bizarre claim is certainly warranted. First, it should be noted that the concept of human evolution is patently false (see Harrub and Thompson, 2003). Any attempt to discard free will based on evolutionary scenarios is doomed to failure. Second, it must be stressed that many in the greater scientific community, who hold an evolutionary bias, admit that human consciousness defies naturalistic explanations (Harrub and Thompson, 2003, pp. 247-428). Third, humans possess inherent qualities unlike anything seen in the animal kingdom. This truth testifies to the fact that humans have been stamped in the image of their divine Creator (Lyons and Thompson, 2002a and Lyons and Thompson 2002b). These are just a few of the concepts that militate against Cashmore’s thesis.

The most damaging line of evidence against Cashmore’s proposition is the way in which he attempts to convince his readers of its truth. His five-and-a-half page article argues that our society should disregard the outdated concept that humans are responsible for their behavior. But if Cashmore is right, then there is no way we can disregard the concept, due to the simple fact that we did not choose it in the first place. If humans are not responsible for their beliefs or behaviors, then the generally held concept of free will, that Cashmore is trying to demolish, is nothing more than an evolutionary, environmental by-product. According to Cashmore’s line of thinking, if we believe in free will at the present, and act on that belief, we are not responsible for it. If he is right, why in the world would he attempt to urge the scientific community to change its mind about free will, if the community does not have the power to change its mind? Why spend time and effort arguing against free will, if your audience does not have the freedom to choose to accept or reject your reasoning anyway? The fatal flaw of the “no free will” argument is that it demands that the person making the argument has the free will to do so, and it tacitly assumes the parties evaluating the argument have the power to accept or reject it.

If Cashmore is right, his genes and environment forced him to write the article. All those who read it were equally compelled to do so, and their conclusions about his writing are preprogrammed responses that cannot be otherwise. So, if anyone disagrees with Cashmore’s thesis, using his line of thinking, that person cannot be said to be right or wrong. The most that can be said is that such a person’s genes and environment led him to a different conclusion than Cashmore’s. Yet the fact that Cashmore is writing a “persuasive” piece of literature belies the reality that his thesis cannot be correct.

It is ironic that Cashmore, in his concluding acknowledgements, thanked his colleagues and those who reviewed his manuscript. Yet if he is right, they were not responsible for their behavior, and they had no choice but to help him. Why thank biological organisms that are just stumbling around their environment without a choice in the matter? That would be like an architect thanking the bricks that made a home possible, or a pilot thanking the air for providing lift for his plane. In reality, Cashmore freely chose to write his article, just as I freely chose to respond to it. You freely chose to read this response, and you can and will freely choose how you respond to it. And it is upon the basis of free will that our divine Creator urges us, as free moral agents, to choose to serve Him and live moral lives (Joshua 24:15).


Cashmore, Anthony (2010), “The Lucretian Swerve: The Biological Basis of Human Behavior and the Criminal Justice System,” PNAS, [On-line], URL: http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2010/02/04/0915161107.full.pdf+html.

Harrub, Brad and Bert Thompson (2003), The Truth about Human Origins (Montgomery, AL: Apologetics Press).

Lyons, Eric and Bert Thompson (2002a), “In the ‘Image and Likeness of God,’” Part 1, Reason and Revelation, [On-line], URL: http://apologeticspress.org/articles/123.

Lyons, Eric and Bert Thompson (2002b), “In the ‘Image and Likeness of God,’” Part 2, Reason and Revelation, [On-line], URL: http://apologeticspress.org/articles/125.

Biological Clocks: Evidence for a Clockmaker by Will Brooks, Ph.D.



Biological Clocks: Evidence for a Clockmaker

by  Will Brooks, Ph.D.

[EDITORS NOTE: The following article was written by A.P. staff scientist Will Brooks, who holds a Ph.D. in Cell Biology from the University of Alabama at Birmingham.]

If one were to ask a clockmaker, “Could this device have constructed itself?” the reply would most certainly be “No.” Clocks are complex instruments designed to accurately and repeatedly keep time to the millisecond. The complexity reaches all the way down to the system of gears and shafts which drive the instrument. It would be inconceivable even to consider the idea that such an instrument would evolve naturalistically over time, eventually reaching a point when it is ready to keep accurate time without missing a single second. Yet, this is exactly what evolutionists would have us to believe regarding an even more complex instrument, the cell division cycle—our own biological clock. [NOTE: The following discussion of cell division is based on Alberts, et al., 2002.]

The cell division cycle is a coordinated sequence of events that drives the division and reproduction of all cells from the single-celled amoeba to cells in the human body. The complexity and coordination of this cycle is staggering. The cell cycle is divided into four primary phases: G1, S, G2, and M.

G1, or the Gap 1 phase, is the time in which cells carry out all of the normal processes of the cell. Some cells remain in this phase for very long periods of time. But, when appropriate stimuli are encountered by a cell, a round of cell division is triggered. This point of no return is known as the restriction point. Once a cell passes this point, it must complete the entire cell cycle and return once more to G1. After a cell reproduces, it must prepare for the next phase of the cell cycle: S-phase or DNA synthesis phase. This preparation requires activating countless genes and making many new proteins that are used only during this one phase of the cell cycle. Once every component is ready, S-phase may begin.

During the DNA synthesis phase, the cell must make an exact copy of its nuclear DNA. This duplication is important because both new cells that will result from cell division must contain equal and identical copies of the parental cell DNA. One human cell contains roughly four billion base pairs of DNA. Copying all of this DNA without error is no small task, yet the cell does so incessantly.

Following completion of DNA synthesis, the cell enters the second gap phase, G2. During this period, the cell prepares for physical division, which involves the production of a whole new set of proteins. At the same time, all those proteins used during S-phase are degraded, since they are no longer needed, and their presence would only promote more DNA synthesis. After all the proper proteins are made and degraded, the cell is ready for physical separation, which takes place during mitosis or M-phase.

Mitosis involves the separation of chromosomes, followed by the separation of the cell. Human cells have 46 pairs of chromosomes when they enter mitosis. Each pair must be separated in the appropriate way in order for each daughter cell to have two copies of the 23 human chromosomes. Once again, this is no small feat. Even one mistake leads to abnormal chromosome numbers in the daughter cells and is harmful—often lethal—to the cell. Yet, the cell achieves this separation without error over and over. At the conclusion of mitosis, two cells result, each identical to the other. Both cells are now once more in G1-phase, able to enter another round of cell division. This cycle is repeated time after time, like clockwork.

In a physical clock or watch, a system of gears and shafts are designed to keep the clock moving, keeping precise, accurate time. What are the driving forces, the gears and shafts if you will, of the cell division cycle? Our cells have their own mechanism for keeping things moving. Two families of proteins lie at the heart of cell cycle progression. They are called cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks). These two groups of proteins work in a cooperative manner to promote each action that takes place during the cell cycle. How they work to keep the biological clock ticking is amazing!

Cyclin-dependent kinases function as enzymes, with the ability to link a small phosphate group (-PO4-3) onto a variety of proteins. This linkage serves as an “on” switch for the targeted protein. By phosphorylating (linking a phosphate) to proteins in the cell, Cdks work to turn on and off other proteins that play roles in the cell cycle. But, Cdks themselves need an “on switch,” which comes from the cyclin proteins. Cyclins are able to bind to cyclin-dependent kinases in order to form a stable protein complex between the two. Once bound together, Cdks are free to phosphorylate their repertoire of targets to promote all the activities of the cell cycle.

It might seem, then, that all cyclins and Cdks are active all of the time and throughout the cell cycle, but they are not. This is where the clockwork activity of the cell is truly seen. During each phase of the cell cycle (G1, S, G2, and M), a different set of cyclin and Cdk proteins are active. Therefore, each pair of proteins is able to promote only those activities which should occur during a phase. For example, during the DNA synthesis phase (S-phase), only those proteins that play a role in making new DNA are activated. This action prevents the phases from occurring out of order or at the wrong time. But, how is only one pair of cyclin-Cdk proteins active at a time? The answer comes in the form of another cyclical event.

Unlike the Cdk proteins, which are always present in the cell, cyclin proteins come and go in a cyclical manner—which accounts for the name cyclin. Production of these proteins is coordinated with the cell cycle phases. When a cell receives signals to undergo division, the G1-cyclins are expressed by the cell. They then partner with G1-Cdks, which already are present to promote those G1 activities of the cell. Additionally, G1 cyclin-Cdks initiate expression of the next group of cyclins—the S-phase cyclins. Once expressed, S-phase cyclin-Cdk partners promote activities of S-phase and turn on the G2-cyclins. This cycle continues for each phase of the cell cycle. Figure 2 illustrates this feature by showing the levels of S-phase cyclin throughout the cell cycle.

This amazing process of cyclin expression is also coupled with cyclin destruction. Once a new cyclin is present in the cell, the previous cyclin is destroyed, which effectively ends the previous cell cycle phase. This constant repetition of cyclin protein production and destruction is the driving force behind every event in the cell division cycle.

Together, the cell cycle and the cycle of cyclin protein production/destruction are an amazingly designed system of events. Such complexity is inexplicable on the basis of naturalism. In this case, the clockmaker is the intelligent Designer, God. It would be impossible for a six-foot-tall grandfather clock or even a small watch to construct itself gradually and start ticking. Equally impossible, the cell could never appear, ready to “tick” through the highly coordinated process of cell division. Just as clocks are constructed by an intelligent designer, the cell cycle is clear evidence for intelligent design in the Universe.


Alberts, Bruce, et al. (2002), Molecular Biology of the Cell (Oxford: Garland Science).

"THE GOSPEL OF MARK" Touches Of The Savior (5:21-43) by Mark Copeland


                          "THE GOSPEL OF MARK"

                    Touches Of The Savior (5:21-43)


1. Mark dedicates much attention to the miracles of Jesus, showing His power over...
   a. Demons - Mk 1:23-28,34; 5:1-20
   b. Sickness - Mk 1:29-31,34,40-45; 2:1-12; 3:1-6
   c. Nature - Mk 4:35-41

2. Our present lesson involves two miracles, showing Jesus power over...
   a. Disease, in healing the woman suffering from an issue of blood
   b. Death, in raising the daughter of Jairus

[We are first introduced to Jairus, a ruler of a synagogue, who begs
Jesus to heal his dying daughter (Mk 5:21-24).  But on the way, there was...]


      1. She had suffered greatly - Mk 5:25-26
         a. The discharge of blood for 12 years
         b. The mistreatments of many physicians
         c. The loss of all that she had
      2. She had heard about Jesus and came to touch His garment - Mk 5:27-29
         a. She believed simply touching His clothes would heal her
         b. When she did, the fountain of blood dried and up and she was healed
      3. Jesus sensed the miracle, and reassured the woman - Mk 5:30-34
         a. Jesus asked who touched Him, and fearfully the woman came forward
         b. Jesus reassured her that her faith made her well and she was healed
      -- Because she was willing to touch Jesus, she was healed!

      1. In our previous study we saw those who were afraid of Jesus - Mk 5:15-17
         a. Are we more like the denizens of the Gadarenes?
         b. Or are we willing to approach Jesus?
      2. We cannot touch Jesus literally, but today we can:
         a. Put Jesus on in baptism - cf. Ga 3:27
         b. Be united with Him in His death and resurrection via baptism - cf. Ro 6:3-4
         c. Have our sins washed away by His blood - Ac 22:16; Re 1:5
      -- If we are willing to touch Jesus, we can be saved!

[If we have enough faith to reach out and touch Jesus by obeying His
word, we can be blessed by that touch!  While Jesus was still speaking
to the woman, troubling news concerning Jairus' daughter came that would lead to...]


      1. On the way to the house - Mk 5:35-37
         a. Jairus was told his daughter is dead
         b. Jesus reassured Jairus, calling upon him to believe
         c. Jesus permitted only Peter, James, and John to accompany Him
      2. At the house of Jairus - Mk 5:38-40
         a. There was tumult with people weeping and wailing
         b. Jesus rebuked the wailing, affirming that the child is not dead but sleeps
         c. They ridiculed Jesus, and He sent them out of the house
         d. The parents, Jesus, and His three disciples entered the room where the child lay
      3. Jesus raised the child - Mk 5:41-43
         a. He took her by the hand (i.e., touched her)
         b. He said to her, "Talitha, cumi" ("Little girl, I say to you arise")
         c. Immediately the girl (12 years old) arose and walked
         d. The parents and disciples were overcome with great amazement
         e. Jesus commanded them to tell no one, but give food to the girl to eat - cf. Mk 1:44-45
      4. Was Jairus' daughter really dead?  Hendriksen offers the following thoughts:
         a. Lk 8:53 declares that the people knew that she was dead.
         b. Lk 8:55 states that at the command of Jesus "her spirit
            returned." It is clear, therefore, that there had been a separation between spirit and body.
         c. Jn 11:11 we have something similar. Jesus tells his
            disciples, "Our friend Lazarus has fallen asleep." But in Jn 11:14 he affirms, "Lazarus died."
         d. In both instances the meaning is that death will not have
            the final say. Not death but life is going to triumph in the
            end. Also, just as natural sleep is followed by awakening,
            so this child is going to become awake, that is, is going to live again.
      -- With a touch (and the command to arise), Jesus raised the child from the dead!

      1. Again not literally, but today we can:
         a. Become a new creation in Christ - 2Co 5:17
         b. Enjoy the blessing of His presence in our lives - Jn 14:23
         c. Enjoy every spiritual blessing there is to be found in Christ - Ep 1:3
      2. Yes, by the "touch" of Jesus, we can experience:
         a. A spiritual resurrection now, via baptism - Col 2:12-13
         b. A bodily resurrection to eternal life in the future - Jn 5:28-29; 11:25
      -- If we are willing to let Jesus "touch" us, we can be raised anew now and in the future!


1. Just imagine the great joy produced by the "Touches Of The Savior"...
   a. The joy of the woman who touched Jesus
   b. The joy of the parents whose child was touched by Jesus

2. There can be great joy today for us today...
   a. If we are willing to "touch" Jesus by obeying Him
   b. If we are willing to let Jesus "touch" us through the blessings He offers

Notice that both the woman and Jairus made efforts to approach Jesus.
So we must come to Jesus in faithful obedience if we are to experience
the "Touches Of The Savior"... - Mt 11:28-30; 28:18-20     
Executable Outlines, Copyright © Mark A. Copeland, 2016

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Is God Sending Us A Message? by Ken Weliever, The Preacherman



Is God Sending Us A Message?

As Houstonians and South Texans are in recovery mode from the flooding caused by Hurricane Harvey, Irma is barrelling through the Carribean taking lives and leaving destruction in her wake. And now she’s taking aim at Florida

Following Irma is Hurricane Jose that is predicted to reek future destruction on  some of the same islands in just a few days.

And the same time, but receiving less news coverage, wild fires are raging in the midst of an extreme drought. This year blazes have flared up and down California from Los Angeles to north of Sacramento. There have also been wildfires in Idaho, Utah, Oregon, and Washington.

Last night Mexico was hit with a magnitude 8 earthquake, causing a potential tsunami threat to several Central American countries.

All the while this is going on North Korea is menacing the world and “playing chicken” with the United States by conducting Nuclear tests with their next launch expected on Saturday.

And of course, ISIS continues to be a global terror threat and could strike anywhere in the world at any time as the 16th anniversary of 911 approaches.

All of this reminds me of a passage from the Old Testament prophet Amos who was sent by God to warn Israel of impending judgment. While God has blessed them, they had neglected God’s laws. They had oppressed the poor. Reveled in luxurious wantonness. Indulged in the worship of idols with its attending immorality. And had rendered their worship to Jehovah as ineffectual and hypocritical.

As a result, Amos reminds them how God chastised them with various natural disasters. Famine, flood, and drought. Blight and mildew that destroyed their crops, along with locusts. Death as a result of war. Yet, none of that phased them. The prophet repeated this line over and again. “Yet you have not returned to Me, says the Lord” (Amos 4:1-11).

Finally, God’s message is simple. “Prepare to meet your God, O Israel.” (4:12). Judgment was coming. And the nation would fall into captivity, at the hands of the cruel Assyrians.

I wonder. Is God trying to get our attention today? Is He sending us a message?

Indeed God has blessed America with wealth, prosperity, and opportunity unlike any other country in history. Yet, we have squandered so much through waste, selfishness and conspicuous consumption. Morally, as a country, we’ve rejected God’s marriage laws, His guidance regarding sexual purity, and His divine gender roles distinguishing men and women.

I wonder how long God will put up with this mess?

I wonder if He’s using the disasters we deal with and the threats we face to send us a message?

I wonder if He is calling us to repent?

The answer is I don’t know.

I am not claiming that the suffering so many are facing right now is a direct judgment from the hand of God. Nor am I asserting that the United States occupies the same status as ancient Israel.

Furthermore, no human being has insight into the mind of God or the providential working of God outside of His revealed will, the Bible.

All of the natural disasters we face right now could simply be attributed to chance. Or natural laws at work. Or, I suppose, in the minds of some, climate change.

Yet, there is a striking parallel between the pronouncements of Amos that were fulfilled in 722 B.C. and current events. At least there is an application that is relevant.

God desires that we faithfully obey Him. He has in every age and dispensation. If we learn anything from the Old Testament it’s this. Obedience is rewarded. Disobedience is punished.

Events can occur in our lives that remind us of our dependence on the Lord. They can sometimes shake us up and prompt us to consider our ways. Re-examine our lives. And make course corrections. It can remind us of Jesus’ call to “repent or perish” (Lk. 13:3).

Out of the tragedy in Houston, we’ve seen people coming together. Neighbor helping neighbor. Strangers risking their lives to assist their fellow man regardless of race, religion, or ethnic origin. We’ve heard more about the need for prayer in the past two weeks than in the past two years.

People facing the fierce oncoming storm suddenly realize what’s really important. And it’s not their stuff. It’s their lives. Their families. And their relationship with God.

“Prepare to meet your God” is a good motto to live by. Not just when facing the wrath of a hurricane. But every day.

May the current sobering events we’re facing remind us of Solomon’s ever-timely exhortation. “ Trust in the Lord with all your heart, And lean not on your own understanding” (Prov. 3:5).

–Ken Weliever, The Preacherman




ORIGINAL CHRISTIANITY?  by steve finnell

Are the Christians today the same as the first century Christians? Do contemporary Christians believe the New Testament, as it was originally written or do they believe it is a living, breathing document? All Scripture contain in the Bible was completed by AD 100 .

Jude 1:3 Beloved, while I was making every effort to write you about our common salvation, I felt the necessity to write to you appealing that you contend earnestly for the faith which was once for all handed down to the saints. (NKJV) (NOTE: Jude was written in AD 65 )

The common salvation was handed down to all the Christians. There was not a new faith handed down nor was the faith amended to fit the will of individual  churches. 

Acts 2:42 They continually devoted themselves to the apostles' teaching...(NKJV)

They did not devote themselves the teaching of the scribes, the Pharisees nor the Judaizers.

2 Timothy 3:16-17 All Scripture is inspired by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, for training in righteousness; 17 so that the man of God may be adequate, equipped for every good work. (NKJV)

The apostles doctrine was all Scripture. That was all that was needed for teaching. The original Christians not need the doctrine of the Roman Catholic catechism, the writings of John Calvin, Martin Luther, John Knox, Charles Spurgeon, nor John Wesley in order to know and practice God's truth, that was presented by the apostles.

Acts 20:27 For I did not shrink from declaring to you the whole purpose of God. (NKJV)

The apostle Paul knew the whole purpose of God, he did not have to consult with Billy Graham, the Pope, Rick Warren, Max Lucado, nor John Piper.[NOTE:  None of those even understand the correct terms of pardon.]


Revelation after the first 100 years of, original Christianity, is not found in the Bible; because everything Christians need for faith and practice in found in the 66 books of the Bible.

Proverbs 30:6 Do not add to His words Or He will reprove you, and you will be proved a liar. (NKJV)


1. Water baptism is not essential for salvation.

2. Water baptism is for a testimony of faith, not in order to the forgiveness of sins.

3. Men are saved by grace alone. God causes men whom He has selected for salvation to have faith so they will be saved.

4. Sprinkling and pouring are just other modes of baptism.

5. Men are saved by faith alone. Immersion in water is a work, therefore is not required in order to be saved.

6. All men are sinners at conception because Adam and Eve sinned.  Non-believing infants can have the sin of Adam as well as all future sins wash away by being baptized. In other words sin can be forgiven without faith in Jesus Christ.

7. Jesus is one of many ways to enter heaven.

8. Men can live a unrepentant sinful lifestyle and still enter the kingdom of God.

9. God approves of many denominations, even though they teach different terms of pardon.

10. Denominations have the right to man-made doctrines even if they are contrary to Scripture, because God will not judge sincere people.

SECOND JOHN by Paul Southern



  2. The book gets its name from the fact that it is the second of three epistles by John.

  4. A few ancient scholars maintained that II John was written by "John the presbyter," a contemporary of John the apostle. The argument is based on verse 1 where the writer assumes the title of "elder" or "presbyter." However, this fact does not prove that John the apostle did not write the epistle, for "elder" is a title by which Peter also designates himself (1 Pet 5:1). John used the title because he was an elder in a congregation, or because he was one advanced in year.

  6. There is also a difference of opinion concerning the one addressed. Some think that "the elect lady" is a symbolical expression used by John to refer to a nation, a church or to the church in general. Many scholars believe that "the elect lady" was a Christian woman. References to her children imply that she was a mother, and because no mention is made of her husband, it is thought that she was a widow.

  8. II John was probably written from Ephesus about A.D. 90, shortly after the first epistle.

  10. The evident purpose of the letter was to warn the addressee against error and false teachers. The letter shows the warm affection that true gospel preachers have toward those whom they serve. One writer says: "Of the thirteen verses in this epistle, eight are in substance found in the former letter." Characteristic words are love, truth, commandment and walking.

    1. Completion
      1. The word love occurs__________ times in II John.
      2. The word truth occurs__________ times in II John.
      3. The word commandment occurs __________ times in II John.
      4. The word walking occurs __________ times in II John.
      5. The author of II John refers to himself as "The ____________________."
      6. The addressee of II John is called "the elect __________."
      7. II John was probably written from the city of __________.
      8. Children of "the elect lady" were walking in __________.
      9. John admonished the elect lady "that we __________ one another."
      10. Walking after God's commandments is John's definition of __________.

    2. True-False
      1. II John was probably written before I John T F
      2. The presbyter John is the same as John the apostle T F
      3. II John is addressed to a particular nation T F
      4. II John was probably written from the Isle of Patmos T F
      5. II John warns against false teachers T F
      6. "The elect lady" probably was a widow T F
      7. "The elect lady" probably lived in Rome T F
      8. II John contains no material found in I John T F
      9. Few deceivers had entered the world T F
      10. John wrote six New Testament books T F
      11. II John mentions "the elect lady's" husband T F
      12. John hoped to visit "the elect lady" T F

    3. Topics for further study
      1. List the characteristics of true discipleship given in the epistle.
      2. What Gnostic heresy is referred to in verse 7?
      3. Does verse 8 suggest degrees of eternal happiness?
      4. Harmonize verses 10 and 11 with I Tim 5:10 and Heb 13:2.

Published in The Old Paths Archive


Bible Reading for January 4 and 5 by Gary Rose


Bible Reading for January 4 and 5

World  English  Bible


Jan. 4

Genesis 4

Gen 4:1 The man knew Eve his wife. She conceived, and gave birth to Cain, and said, "I have gotten a man with Yahweh's help."

Gen 4:2 Again she gave birth, to Cain's brother Abel. Abel was a keeper of sheep, but Cain was a tiller of the ground.

Gen 4:3 As time passed, it happened that Cain brought an offering to Yahweh from the fruit of the ground.

Gen 4:4 Abel also brought some of the firstborn of his flock and of its fat. Yahweh respected Abel and his offering,

Gen 4:5 but he didn't respect Cain and his offering. Cain was very angry, and the expression on his face fell.

Gen 4:6 Yahweh said to Cain, "Why are you angry? Why has the expression of your face fallen?

Gen 4:7 If you do well, will it not be lifted up? If you don't do well, sin crouches at the door. Its desire is for you, but you are to rule over it."

Gen 4:8 Cain said to Abel, his brother, "Let's go into the field." It happened when they were in the field, that Cain rose up against Abel, his brother, and killed him.

Gen 4:9 Yahweh said to Cain, "Where is Abel, your brother?" He said, "I don't know. Am I my brother's keeper?"

Gen 4:10 Yahweh said, "What have you done? The voice of your brother's blood cries to me from the ground.

Gen 4:11 Now you are cursed because of the ground, which has opened its mouth to receive your brother's blood from your hand.

Gen 4:12 From now on, when you till the ground, it won't yield its strength to you. You shall be a fugitive and a wanderer in the earth."

Gen 4:13 Cain said to Yahweh, "My punishment is greater than I can bear.

Gen 4:14 Behold, you have driven me out this day from the surface of the ground. I will be hidden from your face, and I will be a fugitive and a wanderer in the earth. It will happen that whoever finds me will kill me."

Gen 4:15 Yahweh said to him, "Therefore whoever slays Cain, vengeance will be taken on him sevenfold." Yahweh appointed a sign for Cain, lest any finding him should strike him.

Gen 4:16 Cain went out from Yahweh's presence, and lived in the land of Nod, east of Eden.

Gen 4:17 Cain knew his wife. She conceived, and gave birth to Enoch. He built a city, and called the name of the city, after the name of his son, Enoch.

Gen 4:18 To Enoch was born Irad. Irad became the father of Mehujael. Mehujael became the father of Methushael. Methushael became the father of Lamech.

Gen 4:19 Lamech took two wives: the name of the one was Adah, and the name of the other Zillah.

Gen 4:20 Adah gave birth to Jabal, who was the father of those who dwell in tents and have livestock.

Gen 4:21 His brother's name was Jubal, who was the father of all who handle the harp and pipe.

Gen 4:22 Zillah also gave birth to Tubal Cain, the forger of every cutting instrument of brass and iron. Tubal Cain's sister was Naamah.

Gen 4:23 Lamech said to his wives, "Adah and Zillah, hear my voice. You wives of Lamech, listen to my speech, for I have slain a man for wounding me, a young man for bruising me.

Gen 4:24 If Cain will be avenged seven times, truly Lamech seventy-seven times."

Gen 4:25 Adam knew his wife again. She gave birth to a son, and named him Seth, "for God has appointed me another child instead of Abel, for Cain killed him."

Gen 4:26 There was also born a son to Seth, and he named him Enosh. Then men began to call on Yahweh's name. 


Jan. 5

Genesis 5

Gen 5:1 This is the book of the generations of Adam. In the day that God created man, he made him in God's likeness.

Gen 5:2 He created them male and female, and blessed them, and called their name Adam, in the day when they were created.

Gen 5:3 Adam lived one hundred thirty years, and became the father of a son in his own likeness, after his image, and named him Seth.

Gen 5:4 The days of Adam after he became the father of Seth were eight hundred years, and he became the father of sons and daughters.

Gen 5:5 All the days that Adam lived were nine hundred thirty years, then he died.

Gen 5:6 Seth lived one hundred five years, and became the father of Enosh.

Gen 5:7 Seth lived after he became the father of Enosh eight hundred seven years, and became the father of sons and daughters.

Gen 5:8 All the days of Seth were nine hundred twelve years, then he died.

Gen 5:9 Enosh lived ninety years, and became the father of Kenan.

Gen 5:10 Enosh lived after he became the father of Kenan, eight hundred fifteen years, and became the father of sons and daughters.

Gen 5:11 All the days of Enosh were nine hundred five years, then he died.

Gen 5:12 Kenan lived seventy years, and became the father of Mahalalel.

Gen 5:13 Kenan lived after he became the father of Mahalalel eight hundred forty years, and became the father of sons and daughters

Gen 5:14 and all the days of Kenan were nine hundred ten years, then he died.

Gen 5:15 Mahalalel lived sixty-five years, and became the father of Jared.

Gen 5:16 Mahalalel lived after he became the father of Jared eight hundred thirty years, and became the father of sons and daughters.

Gen 5:17 All the days of Mahalalel were eight hundred ninety-five years, then he died.

Gen 5:18 Jared lived one hundred sixty-two years, and became the father of Enoch.

Gen 5:19 Jared lived after he became the father of Enoch eight hundred years, and became the father of sons and daughters.

Gen 5:20 All the days of Jared were nine hundred sixty-two years, then he died.

Gen 5:21 Enoch lived sixty-five years, and became the father of Methuselah.

Gen 5:22 Enoch walked with God after he became the father of Methuselah three hundred years, and became the father of sons and daughters.

Gen 5:23 All the days of Enoch were three hundred sixty-five years.

Gen 5:24 Enoch walked with God, and he was not, for God took him.

Gen 5:25 Methuselah lived one hundred eighty-seven years, and became the father of Lamech.

Gen 5:26 Methuselah lived after he became the father of Lamech seven hundred eighty-two years, and became the father of sons and daughters.

Gen 5:27 All the days of Methuselah were nine hundred sixty-nine years, then he died.

Gen 5:28 Lamech lived one hundred eighty-two years, and became the father of a son,

Gen 5:29 and he named him Noah, saying, "This same will comfort us in our work and in the toil of our hands, because of the ground which Yahweh has cursed."

Gen 5:30 Lamech lived after he became the father of Noah five hundred ninety-five years, and became the father of sons and daughters.

Gen 5:31 All the days of Lamech were seven hundred seventy-seven years, then he died.

Gen 5:32 Noah was five hundred years old, and Noah became the father of Shem, Ham, and Japheth. 


Jan. 4

Matthew 2

Mat 2:1 Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea in the days of Herod the king, behold, wise men from the east came to Jerusalem, saying,

Mat 2:2 "Where is he who is born King of the Jews? For we saw his star in the east, and have come to worship him."

Mat 2:3 When Herod the king heard it, he was troubled, and all Jerusalem with him.

Mat 2:4 Gathering together all the chief priests and scribes of the people, he asked them where the Christ would be born.

Mat 2:5 They said to him, "In Bethlehem of Judea, for thus it is written through the prophet,

Mat 2:6 'You Bethlehem, land of Judah, are in no way least among the princes of Judah: for out of you shall come forth a governor, who shall shepherd my people, Israel.' "

Mat 2:7 Then Herod secretly called the wise men, and learned from them exactly what time the star appeared.

Mat 2:8 He sent them to Bethlehem, and said, "Go and search diligently for the young child. When you have found him, bring me word, so that I also may come and worship him."

Mat 2:9 They, having heard the king, went their way; and behold, the star, which they saw in the east, went before them, until it came and stood over where the young child was.

Mat 2:10 When they saw the star, they rejoiced with exceedingly great joy.

Mat 2:11 They came into the house and saw the young child with Mary, his mother, and they fell down and worshiped him. Opening their treasures, they offered to him gifts: gold, frankincense, and myrrh.

Mat 2:12 Being warned in a dream that they shouldn't return to Herod, they went back to their own country another way.

Mat 2:13 Now when they had departed, behold, an angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph in a dream, saying, "Arise and take the young child and his mother, and flee into Egypt, and stay there until I tell you, for Herod will seek the young child to destroy him."

Mat 2:14 He arose and took the young child and his mother by night, and departed into Egypt,

Mat 2:15 and was there until the death of Herod; that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Lord through the prophet, saying, "Out of Egypt I called my son."

Mat 2:16 Then Herod, when he saw that he was mocked by the wise men, was exceedingly angry, and sent out, and killed all the male children who were in Bethlehem and in all the surrounding countryside, from two years old and under, according to the exact time which he had learned from the wise men.

Mat 2:17 Then that which was spoken by Jeremiah the prophet was fulfilled, saying,

Mat 2:18 "A voice was heard in Ramah, lamentation, weeping and great mourning, Rachel weeping for her children; she wouldn't be comforted, because they are no more."

Mat 2:19 But when Herod was dead, behold, an angel of the Lord appeared in a dream to Joseph in Egypt, saying,

Mat 2:20 "Arise and take the young child and his mother, and go into the land of Israel, for those who sought the young child's life are dead."

Mat 2:21 He arose and took the young child and his mother, and came into the land of Israel.

Mat 2:22 But when he heard that Archelaus was reigning over Judea in the place of his father, Herod, he was afraid to go there. Being warned in a dream, he withdrew into the region of Galilee,

Mat 2:23 and came and lived in a city called Nazareth; that it might be fulfilled which was spoken through the prophets: "He will be called a Nazarene." 


Jan. 5

Matthew 3

Mat 3:1 In those days, John the Baptizer came, preaching in the wilderness of Judea, saying,

Mat 3:2 "Repent, for the Kingdom of Heaven is at hand!"

Mat 3:3 For this is he who was spoken of by Isaiah the prophet, saying, "The voice of one crying in the wilderness, make ready the way of the Lord. Make his paths straight."

Mat 3:4 Now John himself wore clothing made of camel's hair, with a leather belt around his waist. His food was locusts and wild honey.

Mat 3:5 Then people from Jerusalem, all of Judea, and all the region around the Jordan went out to him.

Mat 3:6 They were baptized by him in the Jordan, confessing their sins.

Mat 3:7 But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees coming for his baptism, he said to them, "You offspring of vipers, who warned you to flee from the wrath to come?

Mat 3:8 Therefore bring forth fruit worthy of repentance!

Mat 3:9 Don't think to yourselves, 'We have Abraham for our father,' for I tell you that God is able to raise up children to Abraham from these stones.

Mat 3:10 "Even now the axe lies at the root of the trees. Therefore, every tree that doesn't bring forth good fruit is cut down, and cast into the fire.

Mat 3:11 I indeed baptize you in water for repentance, but he who comes after me is mightier than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to carry. He will baptize you in the Holy Spirit.

Mat 3:12 His winnowing fork is in his hand, and he will thoroughly cleanse his threshing floor. He will gather his wheat into the barn, but the chaff he will burn up with unquenchable fire."

Mat 3:13 Then Jesus came from Galilee to the Jordan to John, to be baptized by him.

Mat 3:14 But John would have hindered him, saying, "I need to be baptized by you, and you come to me?"

Mat 3:15 But Jesus, answering, said to him, "Allow it now, for this is the fitting way for us to fulfill all righteousness." Then he allowed him.

Mat 3:16 Jesus, when he was baptized, went up directly from the water: and behold, the heavens were opened to him. He saw the Spirit of God descending as a dove, and coming on him.

Mat 3:17 Behold, a voice out of the heavens said, "This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased."

Faster than lightning by Gary Rose


Sprite Lightning

Sprite Lightning at 100,000 Frames Per Second
Video Credit & Copyright: Matthew G McHarg, Jacob L Harley, Thomas Ashcraft, Hans Nielsen

Explanation: What causes sprite lightning? Mysterious bursts of light in the sky that momentarily resemble gigantic jellyfish have been recorded for over 30 years, but apart from a general association with positive cloud-to-ground lightning, their root cause remains unknown. Some thunderstorms have them -- most don't. Recently, however, high speed videos are better detailing how sprites actually develop. The featured video, captured in mid-2019, is fast enough -- at about 100,000 frames per second -- to time-resolve several sprite "bombs" dropping and developing into the multi-pronged streamers that appear on still images. Unfortunately, the visual clues provided by videos like these do not fully resolve the sprite origins mystery. High speed vidoes do indicate to some researchers, though, that sprites are more likely to occur when plasma irregularities exist in the upper atmosphere.


(paste the web address into your browser to view the video)

Today, as I opened the “Astronomy Picture of the Day” site I saw this video. This video was taken at the astounding speed of 100,000 frames per second; now that is fast. I thought, WOW, that is much, much faster than a wink of an eye. Curious, I did a bit of research and found out that when we wink (blink or twinkle) our eyes, we do at somewhere between one and two tenths of a second.

in a blink of an eye kept” came to mind and I searched and found this passage in the New Testament…

1 Corinthians 15 ( World English Bible )

51 Behold, I tell you a mystery. We will not all sleep, but we will all be changed,

52 in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised incorruptible, and we will be changed.

53 For this corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put on immortality.

54 But when this corruptible will have put on incorruption, and this mortal will have put on immortality, then what is written will happen: “Death is swallowed up in victory.”

55 “Death, where is your sting? Hades, where is your victory?”

56 The sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the law.

57 But thanks be to God, who gives us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ.

58 Therefore, my beloved brothers, be steadfast, immovable, always abounding in the Lord’s work, because you know that your labor is not in vain in the Lord.

No one knows when Christ will return, no one. But, it will be fast, just as verse 52 above says. Paul emphasizes when Christ returns that we will be victorious, the dead will be raised and those of us who remain alive will be changed into immortality.

Truthfully, I really have a hard time conceptualizing 100,000 frames per second and for that matter even the one to two tenths of a second it takes to blink. However I can understand very, very fast; and that’s all I really need to do.

In the meantime, I am comforted by the fact whatever work we do for the LORD will not be in vain. And that is enough to both encourage and brighten my day. I hope the same is true for everyone who reads this post!