God's Electrical Heavens by Branyon May, Ph.D.



God's Electrical Heavens

by  Branyon May, Ph.D.

According to atmospheric scientists, the Earth has a functioning dynamic global electric circuit. “In the conventional picture, the main components of Earth’s global electric circuit include thunderstorms, the conducting ionosphere, the downward fair-weather currents and the conducting Earth” (Su, et al., p. 974). [The ionosphere is a portion of the upper atmosphere composed of ionized particles formed by the x-ray and ultraviolet irradiative effects of the Sun.] In a greatly simplified picture, the global electric circuit can be viewed as a large spherical capacitor (i.e., a device for the storage of electrical charge). In this model, the ionosphere serves as the upper boundary, and the ground serves as the lower boundary. Between these two boundaries, scientists have measured an existing potential difference of 300,000 volts (Pasko, 2003, 423:927). The electric potential that exists due to this natural capacitor is vital to the global electric circuit. The balance of this potential is vital to the proper functioning of the atmospheric system. Victor Pasko, professor of electrical engineering at Penn State University, commented: “There are many components contributing to the balance of potential between the plates, but two are critical: thunderstorms, of which there are about 2,000 globally at any given time and which act as batteries charging the capacitor; and fair-weather regions, in which the capacitor can discharge continuously through the weakly conducting atmosphere” (p. 927). During fair weather, there is a continual discharge occurring in the global electric circuit. This discharge has been estimated to account for a leakage of approximately one kiloampere, on the global scale.

The traditional view held that the role of thunderstorms was to counteract the continual fair-weather discharge, by acting as a generator driving current into the Earth’s capacitor, both recharging and maintaining the potential difference found between the ionosphere and ground. However, the discovery by Su and his colleagues has introduced another aspect to thunderstorm activity. As Pasko remarked, there is “a new factor in the model of the Earth’s electrical and chemical environment” (p. 927). These “gigantic optical jets” have acted against the commonly held view of thunderstorms as recharging mechanisms; rather, the measurements support the view that they serve to discharge the global capacitor, removing approximately 30 Coulombs each, from the ionosphere. The researchers stated that this would account for only a fraction of one percent of the total charge in the atmosphere, but does “account for a substantial fraction of charges residing in the lower ionosphere” (Su, et al., p. 976). With the new data, Su and his colleagues concluded: “[T]he conventional picture of the global electric circuit needs to be modified to include the contributions of gigantic jets and possibly sprites” (p. 974).

In addition to the electrical environment, Pasko also mentioned that these jets present a new factor in the chemical environment. Oxygen is one of the primary constituents of Earth’s atmosphere, accounting for approximately 21%. Oxygen is considered a diatomic element, meaning that it has an affinity for being paired with itself, as in atmospheric oxygen (O2 ). The explosion of thunder that can be heard is the result of a rapid expansion of air. The expansion of air is caused by the intense heating of atmospheric molecules by the electrical discharge. As it extends, lightning scorches the air, reaching temperatures more than four times hotter than the surface of the Sun—nearly 50,000 degrees Fahrenheit. According to John Roach, writer for National Geographic, lightning produces “enough energy to keep a 100-watt light bulb lit for three months” (2003). Through its electrical nature, lightning also has the capacity to ionize particles. It has been documented that lightning has the capacity of initiating chain reactions, whereby atmospheric oxygen molecules are dissociated, leading to the formation of ozone. This process has been duplicated in the production of industrial ozone for the past century (see van Veldhuizen, 2000). Concerning their chemical effects, Pasko commented: “The ionization created by a gigantic jet is likely to have a significant chemical effect on that volume of atmosphere” (p. 928). He went on to correlate the known surface effects with the high-altitude conditions that would be present in TLEs. He commented that in high altitude situations, streamers would “have the ability to produce highly active chemical species and can effectively ‘treat’ thousands of cubic kilometers of atmosphere” (p. 928). Finally, Pasko concluded: “So the known chemical impact of streamers may be a good indication that TLEs noticeably affect the chemistry of the atmosphere” (p. 929).


The atmosphere is of vital importance to all life on Earth. It contributes to more aspects of life than we are able to quantify, or that could be qualified. For the evolutionist, the changing, early atmosphere of the Earth accounts for the chance emergence of life and the subsequent organic evolutionary process. However, scientists constantly are being confounded by their observations. Although men have been viewing the natural world since the dawn of time, there continues to be an unending stream of intricacies to discover.

Concerning the atmospheric discoveries mentioned, scientists have declared: “It has not been clear, however, whether all the important components of the global circuit have even been identified” (Su, et al., p. 974). They also have commented: “This field is in its infancy, and it remains to be seen how important the electrical and chemical effects of the gigantic jets and other TLEs are for our planet” (Pasko, p. 929). The design of the Earth’s atmosphere continues to impress humanity’s combined intellectual prowess. When discussing the driving forces behind the formation of lightning, Roach described the particle collisions that are needed to produce a separation of electrical charge, which results in the imbalance between cloud and ground. Senior meteorologist Stephen Hodanish of the National Weather Service concluded that a correction (i.e., lightning) for this imbalance results because, “Mother Nature doesn’t like to see that” (as quoted in Raoch, 2003). By ascribing the ultimate cause to an ethereal Mother Nature, Hodanish unknowingly proved the presence of design. Whether it was his intention or not, Hodanish’s comments illustrate the extent of naturalism that now pervades science, and the extent to which that naturalism has reached even into the common aspects of everyday life. Yet, by the scientists’ own admission, it is known that with the brilliantly obvious effect of lightning, there also is a brilliantly obvious Cause.

In the book of Job, the inspired writer penned the words of Elihu, as he declared God’s majesty: “He spreadeth abroad the cloud of his lightning: and it is turned round about by his guidance” (Job 37:11). And to Job, the questions were asked: “O Job: stand still, and consider the wondrous works of God. Dost thou know how God layeth his charge upon them, and causeth the lightning of his cloud to shine? Dost thou know the balancings of the clouds, the wondrous works of him who is perfect in knowledge?” (Job 37:14-16). Job was chastened for placing honor upon himself, neglecting to acknowledge The Most Honorable. For that, Job was reproved—by God Himself.

“Suffer me a little, and I will show thee; for I have yet somewhat to say on God's behalf ” (Job 36:2). In discussing such wonderful design, we also must pay tribute to the Designer; in standing in awe of such an incredible effect, we also must stand in awe of the far greater Cause. As Elihu boldly proclaimed in the verse above as he rebuked Job for self-righteously questioning God’s majesty, we, too, ask, “on God’s behalf,” that time be taken to behold the extraordinary design that is present in the world around us. We must not ascribe it to some mystic, ethereal force; rather, we must acknowledge the ever-so-loving and familiar Father Who can be clearly seen and perceived (Romans 1:20), and Who is “upholding all things by the word of his power” (Hebrews 1:3).


Pasko, Victor P. (2003), “Atmospheric Physics: Electric Jets,” Nature, 423:927-929. June 26.

Pickrell, John (2003), “Huge Mystery Flashes Seen In Outer Atmosphere,” National Geographic News, [On-line], URL: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003/06/0625_030625_atmospherethunder.html, June 25.

Roach, John (2003), “Key to Lightning Deaths: Location, Location, Location,” National Geographic News, [On-line], URL: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003/05/0522_030522_lightning.html, May 22.

Su, Han-Tzong, Rue-Ron Hsu, A.B. Chen, Y.C. Wang, W.S. Hsiao, W.C. Lai, L.C. Lee, M. Sato, and H. Fukunishi (2003), “Gigantic Jets Between a Thundercloud and the Ionosphere,” Nature, 423:974-976. June 26.

Van Veldhuizen, E.M. ed. (2000), Electrical Discharges for Environment Purposes: Fundamentals and Applications (Nova Science: New York).

God’s Original Superhydrophobic Material by Kyle Butt, M.Div.



God’s Original Superhydrophobic Material

by  Kyle Butt, M.Div.

One cannot help but be amazed at ever-increasing technology that continues to offer better, more efficient products and services. Hardly a week goes by that a new discovery does not find its way into the headlines. Interestingly, many of the most advanced, beneficial discoveries are occurring in the field of study known as biomimicry—the copying or mimicking of the natural, biological world.

For instance, on February 23, 2006, the on-line version of Technology Review featured an article titled “Super-Repellent Plastic.” Admittedly, the title of the article itself does not indicate that biomimicry is involved. Yet, knowing that many new discoveries derive from mimicking nature, I could not help but think that this new plastic might be the result of some phenomenon that God had already designed. As I suspected, about three-fourths of the way through the article, the reader is informed that the scientists who are working on this new plastic “took their inspiration from the leaves of the lotus plant, which is naturally superhydrophobic.... GE set out to mimic this pattern on the surface of its polycarbonate materials” (Talbot, 2006).

This amazing new superhydrophobic (“extremely repellent of water”) plastic will “shed” liquids at a much more efficient rate than many current materials, and it will be more inexpensive to manufacture than current substances—like Teflon. Multiple uses for this plastic have been suggested, including ketchup bottles in which the ketchup will not adhere to the sides of the container, and building panels that would be virtually self-cleaning because rain would wash away dirt (Talbot, 2006).

The technology is not supposed to be on the consumer market for another five years, but its potential is excitedly anticipated. In the midst of the excitement, do not lose sight of an important aspect of this technological wonder. Very intelligent, well-educated scientists have spent hundreds (or thousands) of hours on this advancement. And yet, the prototype for it, the lotus plant, has contained the superhydrophobic capacity for the entirety of its existence. What Intelligent Designer is responsible for endowing this amazing plant with such efficient water-shedding abilities? Those who believe in evolution would say that it acquired this ability over millions of years due to random, chance processes at work in nature. But with the same breath they would laud the creative abilities of the GE scientists. Why is it that evolutionists miss the implication that to recognize design in human invention, while attributing the more efficient design in nature to non-intelligent processes, is logically irrational. It is high time that the Creator of nature’s design be given the plaudits He deserves as the Ultimate Engineer.


Talbot, David (2006), “Super-Repellent Plastic,” Technology Review, [On-line], URL: http://www.technologyreview.com/BizTech/wtr_16415,295,p1.html.

God’s Love by Caleb Colley, Ph.D.


God’s Love

by  Caleb Colley, Ph.D.

French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte once said, “Alexander, Caesar, Charlemagne, and myself have founded empires, but upon what do these creations of our genius depend? Upon force. Jesus alone founded His empire upon love: and to this very day millions would die for Him” (as quoted in Ankerberg and Weldon, 1997, p. 29). If every one of God’s characteristics was to be summarized in a single English word, only one word could suffice: love. Of course, the idea of love does not encompass all of God’s characteristics, but it is a fitting summation of God’s personality. In fact, John wrote simply that “God is love” (1 John 4:8-9,16)—perhaps the most powerful statement ever made about God’s love (we do not, as some do, charge that God’s justice is inconsistent with his love and mercy [see Colley, 2004a]).

When Paul listed the fruits of the Spirit—characteristics that appear in the lives of Christ's followers (Galatians 5:22-23)—the first fruit he mentioned was love. Jesus said that all the law and the prophets hang upon love (Matthew 22:40; Mark 12:28). God is not merely a loving God, but God is love, and love defines His very essence. Every action of God has been carried out, ultimately, because of His magnificent love.

God loves His Son. The relationship between God the Father and Jesus Christ is one of great love. God’s eternal love has an eternal object, and that eternal object is Christ. Consider a sampling of the passages that bear the special relationship the Father and Son share:

  • Isaiah 42:1: “Behold! My Servant whom I uphold, my Elect One in whom My soul delights! I have put My Spirit upon Him; He will bring forth justice to the Gentiles. He will not cry out, nor raise His voice.”
  • Matthew 3:17: “And suddenly a voice came from heaven, saying, ‘This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased’ ” (cf. Matthew 17:5).
  • John 1:18: “No one has seen God at any time. The only begotten Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, He has declared Him.”
  • John 5:20: “For the Father loves the Son, and shows Him all things that He Himself does” (cf. John 3:30).
  • John 17:24: “Father, I desire that they also whom You gave Me may be with Me where I am, that they may behold My glory which You have given Me; for You loved Me before the foundation of the world. O righteous Father! The world has not known You, but I have known You; and these have known that You sent Me.”

God loves His Son’s followers. Paul wrote to the Christians at Rome: “Now hope does not disappoint, because the love of God has been poured out in our hearts by the Holy Spirit who was given to us” (Romans 5:5). The Greek verb translated “poured out” in Romans 5:5, ekcheo, is the same verb used to describe the outpouring of the Holy Spirit (Acts 2:17ff.). This suggests that, through Christ, God has blessed His spiritual children with an abundant amount of love. The tense of the verb is perfect, indicating a settled state or a completed action. The idea, then, is that the love of God has filled our hearts, and, like a valley remains full of flood water, our hearts remain full of Christ’s love (see Packer, 1975, pp. 129-130). Those who are in Christ (Romans 6:3-4; Galatians 3:27) are in a covenant relationship with God, a relationship in which both God and the Christian are pledged to each other.

Again, Paul wrote: “For I am persuaded that neither death nor life, nor angels nor principalities nor powers, nor things present nor things to come, nor height nor depth, nor any other created thing, shall be able to separate us from the love of God which is in Christ Jesus our Lord” (Romans 8:38-39). Although Christians can (and, sadly, sometimes do) cease to love Christ (Acts 8:12-13; Galatians 5:4; James 5:19-20; see Jackson, 2003), Christ will never cease to love them, for God is unchanging (James 1:17; see Colley, 2004b). Packer wrote concerning the unchanging quality of God’s love:

…[T]his does not mean that He is unfeeling (impassive), or that there is nothing in Him that corresponds to emotions and affections in us, but that whereas human passions—specifically the painful ones, fear, grief, regret, despair—are in a sense passive and involuntary, being called forth and constrained by circumstances not under our control, the corresponding attitudes in God have the nature of deliberate voluntary choices, and therefore are not of the same order as human passions at all. So the love of the God who is spirit is no fitful, fluctuating thing, as the love of man is, nor is it a mere impotent longing for things that may never be…. There are no inconstancies or vicissitudes in the love of the almighty God who is spirit (1975, pp. 133-134, parenthetical item in orig.).

God loves the world. That is, God cares even for people who disregard Him. Paul wrote: “But God demonstrates His own love toward use, in that while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us” (Romans 5:8, emp. added). The Greek word translated love in Romans 5:8 is agape, which appears abundantly (82 times) in the Greek New Testament. Agape is a selfless love that motivates one to sacrifice on the behalf of others, so it has come to be known by many as “Christian” love. This purest form of love is the agape under consideration when Paul wrote: “And now abide faith, hope, love, these three; but the greatest of these is love” (1 Corinthians 13:13). It was that love that made Christ willing to “taste death for everyone” (Hebrews 2:9).

God despises sin, but loves sinners. He does not approve or overlook sin; rather, He wants each sinner to repent of his wrongdoing and change his life (Acts 17:30). Peter wrote: “The Lord is not slack concerning His promise, as some count slackness, but is longsuffering toward us, not willing that any should perish but that all should come to repentance” (2 Peter 3:9, emp. added). God delays the Second Coming of Christ, not because He is undependable or incapable of fulfilling the promise of judgment (1 Peter 4:17; 2 Peter 3:7-9; 1 John 4:17; Jude 6,15; Revelation 14:7), but because His love motivates Him to give sinners more opportunities to repent. Instead of admiring or imitating the wrong actions of sinners, we should abhor sin (Romans 12:9), and share God’s concern for lost souls—a concern that should motivate us to share the Gospel (Mark 16:15-16; John 14:6).

Jesus said, “A new commandment I give to you, that you love one another; as I have loved you, that you also love one another” (John 13:34, emp. added). In stating that the commandment was new, Jesus obviously intended to draw a distinction between His commandment and everything else that would have been familiar to His disciples concerning the topic they were discussing. Though the command to love one’s neighbor was not new (Leviticus 19:18), Christ’s command was new in that it demanded that we love, not as we love ourselves, but as God loves us. This would be the sign to non-Christians that the first-century disciples really were followers of Christ (John 13:35; see Pack, 1977, 5:54-55), and it serves the same purpose today.

William Evans wrote: “As love is the highest expression of God and His relation to mankind, so it must be the highest expression of man’s relation to his Maker and to his fellow-man” (1994, 3:1932). God’s love should motivate us to express our love for Him by obeying His commands. Jesus could not have put it any clearer than He did when He said, “If you love Me, keep My commandments” (John 14:15). Let us pray that as we obey Christ, we will be able to “comprehend with all the saints what is the width and length and depth and height” of His love, which “passes knowledge” (Ephesians 3:18-19).


Ankerberg, John, and John Weldon (1997), Ready With an Answer (Eugene, OR: Harvest House).

Colley, Caleb (2004a), “God’s Mercy and Justice,” [On-line], URL: http://www.apologeticspress.org/articles/1860.

Colley, Caleb (2004b), “The Immutability of God,” [On-line], URL: http://www.apologeticspress.org/articles/2567.

Evans, William (1994), The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, ed. James Orr (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson).

Jackson, Wayne (2003), “Galatians 5:4—Fallen from Grace,” [On-line], URL: http://www.christiancourier.com/notes/fallenFromGrace.htm.

Pack, Frank (1977), The Living Word Commentary, ed. Everett Ferguson (Austin, TX: Sweet).

Packer, J.I. (1975), Knowing God (London: Hodder and Stoughton), second edition.



"THE GOSPEL OF MARK" Disciples Ask Questions (9:10-13) by Mark Copeland









Disciples Ask Questions (9:10-13)


1. After being told not to reveal what occurred on the mount of
   transfiguration, Peter, James, and John had questions about what Jesus said... - Mk 9:10
   a. They weren't sure what rising from the dead meant
   b. Though believing in the future resurrection, they were perplexed
      by announcements of Jesus' own death and resurrection - cf. Mk 9:31-32

2. They then asked a question about what scribes taught concerning Elijah...
   a. Why Elijah must come first, that is, precede the Messiah - Mk 9:11
   b. Jesus confirms the scribes were correct, Elijah must come first - Mk 9:12; cf. Mal 4:5
   c. But that Elijah had already come, in the person of John the Baptist - Mk 9:13; cf. Mt 17:12-13

[Note that in the first case, the disciples had a question but did not
ask, thus remaining in ignorance (cf. Mk 9:31-32); in the second case,
they had a question, asked and received their answer.  Important to
discipleship is asking questions! To appreciate why, let's first review...]


      1. The Greek word is mathetes - a learner, pupil - Thayer
      2. It denotes "one who follows another's teaching" - Vine's Expository Dictionary

      1. To learn from Him - Mt 11:28-30
      2. To be taught things He commanded - Mt 28:19-20

      1. To grow in knowledge - 2Pe 3:18
      2. To increase in the knowledge of God and Christ - Col 1:10; Php 3:8

[A disciple of Christ, then, is to be life-long learner, growing in the
knowledge of God and those things which He taught Himself and through
His apostles.  Important to such learning is...]


      1. In regards to healing on the Sabbath - Mt 12:10-12
      2. In regards to His identity - Mt 16:13-15; 22:42-45
      3. In regards to divorce - Mk 10:3
      3. In regards to paying taxes - Lk 20:22-25
      4. In regards to having authority - Mt 21:24-25
      -- Asking questions can be a useful teaching tool

      1. They asked about His parables - Mk 4:10; 7:17
      2. They asked about Elijah - Mk 9:11
      3. They asked about their inability to cast out a demon - Mk 9:28
      4. They asked about His teaching on divorce - Mk 10:10
      5. They asked about the man born blind - Jn 9:2
      6. They asked about the destruction of Jerusalem - Mk 13:1-4
      -- Asking questions is a great way to learn

      1. Do not hesitate to ask questions
         a. In Bible classes
         b. After the sermons
         c. At any time (in person, via email, by phone)
      2. Do not be afraid to ask questions
         a. Some fear they will appear ignorant
         b. Which is better:
            1) To appear ignorant temporarily?
            2) To remain ignorant permanently?
      3. Besides learning, asking questions is a great way:
         a. To make Bible classes more interesting
         b. To help teachers and preachers be more useful (they love questions!)
      4. I had a student who came to class prepared with questions
         a. He wrote them down prior to class on 3x5 index cards
         b. His questions encouraged others to ask their own questions
         c. It provided a great learning experience for all
      -- Never underestimate the importance of asking questions!


1. Remember, a disciple is a life-long learner...
   a. As disciples of Christ, we must always be learning
   b. Growing in knowledge, understanding, and wisdom

2. There is no better way to learn than to ask questions...
   a. Ask a brother, a sister, a teacher, a preacher
   b. Keep asking until you get a Biblical answer

And you certainly do not have to wait until you are a disciple of Jesus
to ask questions.  Consider the example of the Ethiopian eunuch:

   So the eunuch answered Philip and said, "I ask you, of whom does
   the prophet say this, of himself or of some other man?" Then
   Philip opened his mouth, and beginning at this Scripture, preached
   Jesus to him. Now as they went down the road, they came to some
   water. And the eunuch said, "See, here is water. What hinders me
   from being baptized?" - Ac 8:34-36

He asked two questions:  one that began his learning about Jesus, the
other that led to his being saved by Jesus!  Are you willing to ask
questions in order to learn and be saved...?     
Executable Outlines, Copyright © Mark A. Copeland, 2016

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Ten Questions About Our Entertainment Choices by Ken Weliever, The Preacherman



Ten Questions About Our Entertainment Choices

“Highly sexualized.” “Trashy.” “Sexual exploitation.” “Soft-core porn.” “A horrible embarrassment.”

These are just a few of the descriptions I read on social media regarding the Super Bowl halftime show featuring Latin pop artists Shakira and Jennifer Lopez.

I didn’t realize how raunchy the performance was until the next morning when I read so many accounts of people disgusted by the skimpy costumes, seductive gyrating and sexy choreography.

We were watching the game at a friend’s house and I went to the kitchen for some food and spent the time talking with a couple of friends during the entire time until the second half began. Obviously, it’s a good thing I didn’t see it.

While I appreciate people raising righteous objections to the half-time show, the challenges we face with our entertainment choices are ongoing. Not just once a year during the Super Bowl. In fact, if the truth was known, many professed Christians are watching movies and TV shows much worse than the Shakira and J. Lo show.

If we’re to be guided by Scripture, and we’ve been given “everything that pertains to life and godliness” (2 Pet. 1:3), there are some Biblical principles that will help us in our entertainment choices.

To begin with, consider these five passages.

“I will set nothing wicked before my eyes” (Ps 101:3).

“Finally, brethren, whatever things are true, whatever things are noble, whatever things are just, whatever things are pure, whatever things are lovely, whatever things are of good report, if there is any virtue and if there is anything praiseworthy — meditate on these things.” (Phil 4:8)

“I made a covenant with my eyes not to look lustfully at a girl” (Job 31:1).

Turn away my eyes from looking at worthless things,”And revive me in Your way.” (Ps 119:37)

“But I say to you that whoever looks at a woman to lust for her has already committed adultery with her in his heart” (Matt 5:28).

Here are 10 questions to consider when we turn on the TV, go to a movie, attend a concert, or watch a play.

1. Is what I’m watching lewd and lascivious and appeals to my sinful fleshy desires?

2. Am I looking at a person created in God’s image with pure and honorable intentions?

3. Does this entertainment distract from my pursuit of holiness, righteousness, and godliness?

4. Does this show produce ennobling thoughts or pollute my mind with cheap and tawdry thoughts?

5. Is the allurement of this show vulgar or virtuous?

6. Am I morally stronger from this entertainment, or spiritually weakened?

7. Are the values being presented consistent with my Christian values?

8. Am I allowing myself to be amused by something that is sinful?

9. Would I feel comfortable having Jesus sit with me during this show?

10. When I finish watching do I feel good about myself or do I feel sleazy?

J. Oswald Sanders was right when he wrote, “The mind is the battleground upon which every moral and spiritual battle is fought.” However, it’s possible to deceive ourselves and allow ungodly influences to corrupt our minds, exploit our feelings, and defile our hearts.

As our secular culture continues to slouch toward Sodom, Christians must be alert to Satan’s schemes to soil our souls with sensuous entertainment.

The Christian’s calling and our challenge have not changed from the first century: “Do not be conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewal of your mind” (Rom 12:2).

–Ken Weliever, The Preacherman

EXTRA-BIBLICAL PROOF? by steve finnell



EXTRA-BIBLICAL PROOF? by steve finnell

Christians using extra-Biblical historical proof to prove that Jesus lived and was resurrected from the dead is an exercise in futility. Non believers can produce secular historical writings refuting the Bible. Even extra-Biblical writing written by Christians may or may not be true. The only trustworthy account of New Testament Christianity is the New Testament Bible. Extra-Biblical secular historical writings were not given by the inspiration of God, their writings were not Scriptures. Extra-Biblical writing by the early church fathers and other Christians were not given by the inspiration of God, their writings were not Scriptures.

I believe Jesus is the Son of God and was resurrected from the dead by God the Father because the Bible tells me so.

1 Corinthians 15:3-8 For I delivered to you first of all that which I received: that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures, 4 and that He was buried, and that He rose again the third day according to the Scriptures, 5 and that He was seen by Cephas, than by the twelve. 6 After that He was seen by over five hundred at once, of whom the greater part remain to the present, but some have fallen asleep. 7 After that He was seen by James, then by all the apostles. 8 Then at last of all He was seen by me also, as by one born out of due time.(NKJV)

Other Resurrection Scriptures: Mark 16:14, Matthew 27:52-54, Matthew 28:1-15, Luke 24:2-7, Acts 1:2-3

The only trustworthy Christian writings are those that parrot  Biblical facts.

The Bible proves that extra-Biblical writings are true. Extra-Biblical writing do not prove the Bible is true. God does not need to be validated by uninspired accounts of history.   


Peter's First Letter Chapter Three by Charles Hess


 Peter's First Letter

Chapter Three
Copyright ©2003, Charles Hess, Ridgefield, Washington
[ 01 ] [ 02 ] [ 03 ] [ 04 ] [ 05 ] [ 06 ] [ 07 ] [ 08 ] [ 09 ] [ 10 ]
[ 11 ] [ 12 ] [ 13 ] [ 14 ] [ 15 ] [ 16 ] [ 17 ] [ 18 ] [ 19 ] [ 20 ]
[ 21 ] [ 22 ]

In this chapter[ 1 ] the Holy Spirit begins to teach about godly living. First, He instructs wives and husbands. He urges kindness to fellow saints. Suffering for doing good is contrasted with suffering for doing wrong. From Christ's suffering, He leads into preaching to the spirits in prison. He compares salvation by water baptism with the salvation of Noah. The ark was carried by water from old sinful surroundings to a new cleansed environment (see chart 1 PETER 3 OUTLINE).

  1. Wives, husbands (1Pe 3:1-7).
  2. Love one another (1Pe 3:8-12).
  3. Suffering for doing good contrasted with suffering for doing wrong (1Pe 3:13-17).
  4. Christs suffering; spirits in prison (1Pe 3:18- 19).
  5. Salvation by water baptism compared with Noah's salvation (1Pe 3:18-22).


3:1, 2 Wives, likewise, be submissive to your own husbands, that even if some do not obey the word, they, without a word, may be won by the conduct of their wives, 2 when they observe your chaste conduct accompanied by fear.In the same way, you wives, be submissive to your own husbands so that even if any of them are disobedient to the word, they may be won without a word by the behavior of their wives, 2 as they observe your chaste and respectful behavior.

Wives [you, ye, wives].[ 2 ] The Greek word for "wives" is elsewhere translated "women." The choice depends upon which term fits in the context. Since it is impossible for women who are not wives to be in subjection to their own husbands, the obvious translation in the present verse is "wives" (see note below on To your own husbands.

Likewise [in the same way, in like manner].[ 3 ] In the previous chapter the apostle said, "Servants, be submissive to your masters" (1Pe 2:18; see also 2:13). Wives are not servants but, in the same way as servants, they are to be in subjection to their husbands. The meaning of the Greek "be submissive" is the same for both servants and wives in the respective verses.

Be submissive [be in subjection, be subject].[ 4 ] According to Scripture, wives rank under husbands. Godly wives accept the authority of their own husbands. They recognize their rule and are in subjection. Notice that the voice of the Greek verb implies that the wife is to cause herself to be in subjection. A Christian wife should not need coercion or force to do that. If she needs to be compelled to submit, her voluntary obedience to God is, in this matter, weakened or nullified.

To your own husbands [to your husbands].[ 5 ] "Wives, submit to your own husbands, as to the Lord" (Eph 5:22; compare Col 3:18, 19; Tit 2:4, 5). The Greek word for "husbands" may, in some instances, be translated "men" but the word IDIOS own strongly suggests they are not just men but husbands. So far as I have checked, all translators have recognized this point and have rendered the Greek accordingly as "husbands."

That even if some do not obey the word [so that some, though if, even if, any obey not, are disobedient to, the word].[ 6 ] Unfortunately, some of the Christian ladies to whom Peter wrote had married men who were disobedient to the word. Apparently, some of the husbands had heard the gospel and rejected it. Others of them would soon become acquainted with it. Some of these would choose to remain in a lost condition until something softened their heart. Peter begins to explain just what that something could be.

They, without a word [they without the word].[ 7 ] The Greek language does not have a corresponding word for "a" so, where appropriate, in the absence of an article (the), "a" is supplied. In this phrase, there is no article in the Greek. "Without word" would be an acceptable translation. If the article were present it would be "the" word, that is, the gospel. The absence of the article does not preclude the husband hearing the gospel. It only dissuades the wife from talking constantly about church. Incessant nagging about religion is not advisable. The wife is released from any requirement to force the gospel message upon a mate who appears uninterested. Although not mentioned here, the converse may be true. That is, faithful husbands may, without constant pressure, win their unbelieving wives.

May be won [may also be won, be gained].[ 8 ] Neither men nor women may be saved without the word of Christ which produces faith (see Ro 10:17; Heb 11:6). However, it is possible to win a persons heart to Christ with kindness. Abraham Lincoln is credited with the principle, "A drop of honey is more attractive than a gallon of vinegar." By gracious submission, wives may become good influences on their husbands. There is something appealing about a wife who is submissive first to God and then to her husband. Lest someone think that submission is a distasteful burden that God has given women alone, let it be noted that the practice of submission is also enjoined upon all Christians (see 1Pe 5:5). Submission enables men to win others to Christ, as Paul said:

For though I am free from all men, I have made myself a servant to all, that I might win the more (1Co 9:19).

By the conduct of their wives [by the behavior, the conversation, the manner of life, of the wives].[ 9 ] There is a silent power in positive living. When husbands behold their Christian wives' behavior, especially under stress, they may be led to glorify God (compare 1Pe 2:12).

[3:2] When they observe [while they see, behold, beholding, having witnessed].[ 10 ] Pagans observe the behavior of Christians (1Pe 2:12). Unbelieving husbands watch the conduct of their faithful wives.


Your chaste [your pure, holy].[ 11 ] A chaste wife is virtuous, wholesome and pure. The lexicons say that "chaste" means "pure from every fault, immaculate" (see chart PURE AND CHASTE).

(1Pe 3:2)
  1. HOSIOS, holy, free from defilement (1Ti 2:8; Tit 1:8).
  2. KATHAROS, pure, cleansed (Jas 1:27; 1Pe 1:22).
  3. HAGIOS, holy, free from admixture of evil (1Pe 3:2).
  4. EILIKRINEES, pure, tested, literally, judged by the sunlight (2Pe 3:1).
  5. (Adapted from Vine 175)

Conduct [behavior, conversation].[ 12 ] Both male and female Christians are commanded to be holy in all their behavior (1Pe 1:15). The reason given is that God is holy. Christians are to be holy because of their relationship to Him. The effect of this upon others may be phenomenal.

Accompanied by fear [respectful, and reverent, coupled with, carried out in, fear].[ 13 ] First of all, a wife is to fear God. Under God, she is to respect and reverence her husband (see verse 5, 6; compare 1Pe 1:17; 2:17, 18).


3:3, 4 Do not let your adornment be merely outward-- arranging the hair, wearing gold, or putting on fine apparel-- 4 rather let it be the hidden person of the heart, with the incorruptible beauty of a gentle and quiet spirit, which is very precious in the sight of God.

Do not let your adornment [let not yours be adorning, whose adorning let it, let your adorning, not be].[ 14 ] There is a tendency to apply verses 3 and 4 to women but men too need to heed the lesson. "Adornment" is literally "putting on" (see note below on Or putting on fine apparel). Neatness is not condemned nor is sloppiness encouraged. However, for a Christian to be overly concerned about his or her own beauty and attractiveness is imprudent to say the least.


Be merely outward [the, that, just for outward one, outward appearance].[ 15 ] Some translators have appropriately supplied "adorning" from the previous phrase. Instruction about the dress of women was important enough for Peter to mention some of the same items that Paul did.

In like manner also, that the women adorn themselves in modest apparel, with propriety and moderation, not with braided hair or gold or pearls or costly clothing (1Ti 2:9)


Arranging the hair [with, of, as the, plaiting, tressing, braiding, hair].[ 16 ] The NKJV with "araranging" the hair emphasizes the general nature of the command. There seems to be no intrinsic reason that braiding in particular was condemned. Was this specific hairstyle somehow especially sinful? Most likely, the Holy Spirit censures not just a certain type of plaiting but discourages all elaborate or expensive coiffures that give an appearance wealth and seductiveness.


Wearing gold [decoration, and, and of, wearing, jewels, of gold, golden ornaments].[ 17 ] The Christian woman is not to wear lot of gold adornments or any other kind of expensive jewelry to impress others.


Or putting on fine apparel [of, and wearing of, apparel, fine clothing].[ 18 ] Modestly priced dresses, are appropriate. Expensive finery is not. Years ago, an affluent family moved to our area and attended worship with us. I observed the example of the wife as she tried to obey this instruction. In the assemblies, she usually wore what other women called "house dresses" instead of the most elaborate and glamorous gowns she could afford.


[3:4] Rather let it be the hidden person of the heart [but the, but let it be, the hidden man of the heart].[ 19 ] Worshipful singing to the Lord is beautiful because of what occurs in the heart (Eph 5:19; Col 3:16). The inner self is always to be beautifully adorned in the sight of God. Godly women should spend time doing that (see 2Co 4:16). Inner beauty is appreciated by family, other Christians and, especially, the Lord. Paul gave one aspect of his own inward adornment when he wrote:

For I delight in the law of God according to the inward man (Ro 7:22).

With the incorruptible beauty [in the imperishable jewel, grace, apparel, ornament, in that which is not corruptible].[ 20 ] In ancient times, according to Isaiah, some women utilized at least twenty-one different items to make themselves appear beautiful and attractive.

In that day the Lord will take away the finery: the jingling anklets, the scarves, and the crescents; 19 The pendants, the bracelets, and the veils; 20 The headdresses, the leg ornaments, and the headbands; the perfume boxes, the charms, 21 and the rings; the nose jewels, 22 the festal apparel, and the mantles; the outer garments, the purses, 23 and the mirrors; the fine linen, the turbans, and the robes (Isa 3:18-23).

Outward beauty wanes; inner character remains. All the fineries that aid external attractiveness are ephemeral, temporary and transient. Everything outward that a woman does to make herself beautiful is either superficial or fleeting. Even gold, jewels and fine clothing will deteriorate, wear out or go out of style. Lovely skin wrinkles. Captivating hairdos give way to grey and lifeless hair. Bodily charm declines with age. Inner loveliness, on the other hand, does not diminish with advancing years. Because of what is inside, a woman of any age may be beautiful (or ugly).


Of a gentle [of a meek, even the ornament of a meek].[ 21 ] The Greek word for gentle is PRAEOS. A form of this word is used in many passages. For example, "Blessed are the PRAEIS meek [or gentle] for they shall inherit the earth" (Mt 5:5). A Greek synonym that describes a gentle, soothing disposition is EPIOS.

But we were EPIOI[ 22 ] gentle among you, just as a nursing mother cherishes her own children (1Th 2:7).

And a servant of the Lord must not quarrel but EPION be gentle to all, able to teach, patient (2Ti 2:24).

And quiet spirit.[ 23 ] A quiet and gentle spirit produces kind words and gentle actions. It is the attitude or disposition that Paul calls "a spirit of gentleness" (see Ga 6:1). To be avoided is a loud, clamorous and boisterous disposition.

Which is very precious [which is of great price].[ 24 ] God's values are different from those of most people. For example, one human soul is worth more than the entire world. It is the person, not the adornment that should be precious. The inner adornment of a meek and quiet spirit is of great worth. The right spirit is more valuable than all outer embellishments put together. A calm quietness accompanies true wisdom (compare Jas 3:17). Compared to a gentle spirit, expensive outward adornments are mere trinkets and baubles.

She is more precious than rubies, and all the things you may desire cannot compare with her (Pr 3:15).

The "worthy woman" of Proverbs 31 had both wisdom and inner beauty. In that context, Lemuel asked:

Who can find a virtuous wife? For her worth is far above rubies (Pr 31:10).

In the sight of God [in God's sight].[ 25 ] God sees inner beauty (see 1Sa 16:7). Some humans only see that which is outward.


3:5, 6 For in this manner, in former times, the holy women who trusted in God also adorned themselves, being submissive to their own husbands, 6 as Sarah obeyed Abraham, calling him lord, whose daughters you are if you do good and are not afraid with any terror.

For in this manner [so, thus also, after this manner, this is how].[ 26 ] Among God's people, holy women of old adorned themselves inwardly (see verses 3, 4).

In former times [once, of old, in the old time, aforetime, heretofore].[ 27 ] Instead of being instructed to follow the latest Hollywood styles and fashions, modern women are called upon to take a lesson from the women of "former" or "ancient" times.

The holy women [the holy women also].[ 28 ] In God's estimation, women are never considered unimportant nor do they go unnoticed. The Holy Spirit searches through past time with a consciousness of various holy women. As believers, these women were holy because they were in fellowship with God. They were pleasing to Him because they trusted Him and obeyed His will.

(1Pe 3:5)
  1. Holy.
  2. Hoped in God.
  3. Adorned themselves inwardly.
  4. Submissive to husbands.

Who trusted in God [who hoped, have hoped, had their hope set, on God].[ 29 ] Like godly women today, holy women of ancient times were believers in God. Paul spoke of widows in the NT church who had their hope fixed on God (1Ti 5:5) Without faith they would not have hoped in Him. A living hope is one that is backed up by trust and obedience (see 1Pe 1:3, 22; 2Pe 1:5-11).

Also adorned themselves [used to adorn themselves].[ 30 ] Holy women in the ancient past continued to make themselves beautiful on the inside. One factor of their inner adornment was deliberate obedience to their husbands (see note on verse 6). The Greek imperfect tense verb suggests that their inner adornment was not a one-time act but an unending process.

Being submissive to their own husbands [and were being subject, in subjection, unto their husbands].[ 31 ] Being in submission to one's husband is a major part of the adornment of a godly wife. Women who are rebellious or disobedient to their husbands lose their spiritual beauty. They are "out of style" with God.


[3:6] As Sarah obeyed Abraham [even as Sara obeyed Abraham].[ 32 ] Sarah was submissive to her husband. Even though she may have had some anxiety about it, she even obeyed in the questionable matter of telling the half-truth that she was Abraham's sister (see Ge 12:13; 20:2).

Calling him lord [and called him "Sir"].[ 33 ] Sarah listened in on the conversation between an angel and Abraham. She laughed when the angel said he would return at that time next year and Sarah would have a son. Notice what she said to herself.

Therefore Sarah laughed within herself, saying, "After I have grown old, shall I have pleasure, my lord being old also?" (Ge 18:12).

Yes, in her own private heart-thoughts, she called Abraham her lord!

Whose daughters you are [whose children ye are, now are, have become, and you are now, her children].[ 34 ] Being a daughter of Sarah is an honor. Women become her daughters by inward attitude and adornment expressed in righteous behavior.

If you do good [if ye, as long as ye, do right, do well, as you continue doing that which is good].[ 35 ] Doing right in God's sight begins internally (see Pr 4:23; Mt 15:11, 18). Outward actions not backed up by sincere resolves and convictions are deceptive and hypocritical.

And are not afraid with any terror [and let nothing terrify you, and not fearing, put in fear, fearful, by any, any kind of, dismay, amazement, consternation].[ 36 ] Christian women voluntarily take the position that God assigned to them. They are not frightened into it. If there could be value in men and women doing right because of constant terror, God could certainly have provided scenes of horror aplenty. He chose not to coerce women or men by that means. This is not to deny that there is an element of fear in His motivation for men and women. He values service out of faith and love more than from coercion or intimidation (compare 1Pe 3:14). He would prefer that perfect love would cast out the fear (1Jo 4:18).

Godly behavior of a wife comes from calm inner resolve, not from a jittery nervous state brought on by a pompous, overbearing, dictatorial husband. Many non-Christian husbands and some who are Christians browbeat their wives. They employ intimidation and threats to control them. Peter gives a veiled condemnation of all men who try to cower their wives by scare tactics. With this, he begins his instructions to husbands (see verse 7).


3:7 Husbands, likewise, dwell with them with understanding, giving honor to the wife, as to the weaker vessel, and as being heirs together of the grace of life, that your prayers may not be hindered.

Husbands, likewise [in like manner, ye, you, husbands].
[ 37 ] Responsibilies of husbands in the marriage relationship are great. For one thing, unlimited love is enjoined, not just a few kind thoughts mingled with lust.

Husbands, love your wives, just as Christ also loved the church and gave Himself for her (Eph 5:25).

Husbands, love your wives and do not be bitter toward them (Col 3:19).

The opposite of being embittered is an inner quality that expresses itself by congenial, gentle, harmonious and supportive behavior.

Dwell with them [live with your wives].[ 38 ] One aspect of married life is togetherness. Godly husbands dwell with their wives. Shared projects and activities are important. The marriages of spouses who allow themselves to drift totally into separate interests and endeavors are headed for trouble.

(1Pe 3:7)
  1. Her spiritual needs.
  2. Her physical needs.
  3. Her emotional needs.
  4. Her need for enjoyment.
  5. Her need for approval.

(1Pe 3:7)
  1. Husband's headship of the home.
  2. Husband's spiritual leadership.
  3. Husband not "lording it over" the wife.
  4. Wife's submissive role.

With understanding [according to knowledge, considerately, in an understanding manner].[ 39 ] The Bible instructions on marriage include the consideration of mutual sexual, emotional and social needs as well as the headship of the husband and submission of the woman. Both mates are to honor and respect each other. Both are to follow the golden rule in all situations (see charts ROLES OF HUSBAND AND WIFE).

(1Pe 3:7)
  1. As a woman.
  2. As a weaker vessel.
  3. The dignity of being a fellow-heir.
  4. Enjoy life's blessings (the grace of life).
  5. So prayers are not hindered.

Giving honor to the wife [showing, bestowing, honor on, unto, them, the woman].[ 40 ] Every husband ought to admire and respect his wife. "An excellent wife is the crown of her husband" (Pr 12:4; see charts UNDERSTANDING THE WIFE; HONOR THE WIFE).

Her children rise up and call her blessed; her husband also, and he praises her (Pr 31:28).

Charm is deceitful and beauty is passing, but a woman who fears the LORD, she shall be praised (Pr 31:30).

If possible, the wife should be honored with some financial consideration. "Honor" is sometimes used in Scripture of material or financial support. Inasmuch as the wife is the weaker vessel and since she has the responsibility for bearing and nursing children, certain compensations are due her. In most cases she should be excused from hard labor (but see Ex 35:25, 26; Ru 2:7, 17; 1Sa 8:13; Pr 31:13, 17, 18-22, 24; Ac 9:36; 16:14, 15).

As much as possible, the man should be earn the living for the family. Unfortunately, in some countries, the economy is such that it is almost a necessity for both husband and wife to work. Satan is pleased about this, especially when there are young children.

Women and men are significantly different. First, they are dissimilar biologically. A woman's fear of pregnancy may be oppressive. Her sexual aggressiveness may become more than a little reserved. Other variances are not so obvious. She is basically different from the man in temperament and disposition. Her cyclic emotions may be profound. She has to deal with the problem (or blessing) of attractiveness to men. Her approach to entertainment and diversion may be unlike a man's.

Each reader should be able classify at least some of the following under masculine or feminine headings: hunting, football, romance novels, car racing, boxing, baseball, cooking and embroidery. Activities such as exercise, gardening, chess, bicycling, walking, dining out, listening to or performing music, art appreciation, Bible study, working puzzles and oil painting are more difficult to classify gender -wize. Both husband and wife may find mutual enjoyment in some of these as well as in other activities.

As to the weaker vessel [as, as with, as unto, the weaker sex, a weaker, even the female, vessel].[ 41 ] All Christians are vessels in God's great house (see 2Ti 2:20). Many think the vessel in 1 Thessalonians 4:4 refers by metonymy to the wife (compare Ro 9:21-23; 2Co 4:7). Men are usually taller and more muscular than women. Women may be inferior in physical strength. They are weaker because of physical cycle discomfort. During child-bearing a mother exercises special care for the safety of the child (see Ge 3:16; 35:16-18; Isa 13:8; 42:14; Joh 16:21; 1Th 5:3). Woman is the weaker partner in authority and is subject to her husband (see Ge 3:16; 1Co 11:3; 14:34, 35; Eph 5:22, 23; 1Ti 2:11-15; 1Pe 3:1, 5).

And as being heirs together [and since you are, as, as being. also, joint-heirs, fellow-heirs].[ 42 ] In the beginning, God blessed both Adam and Eve. Notice that He blessed both of them and gave both of them dominion over His creation:

Then God blessed them, and God said to them, "Be fruitful and multiply; fill the earth and subdue it; have dominion over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the air, and over every living thing that moves on the earth" (Ge 1:28).

Children are "a heritage from the LORD" to both parents (Ps 127:3-5; compare 128:3). The eternal inheritance of woman is equal to man's (Ga 3:28; compare Ro 4:13; 8:17; Ga 4:7; Tit 3:7; Heb 1:14; 6:17; 11:7; 1Pe 1:4). Husband and wife together share in joyful activities on earth and together they look forward to eternity.

Of the grace of life [of the gift, the gracious gift, of life].[ 43 ] Grace is favor. "He who finds a wife finds a good thing, and obtains favor from the LORD" (Pr 18:22; compare 19:14). When a husband and wife are Christians they share happiness. Life's joys belong to them equally. Both rejoice in the spiritual growth and the faithfulness of their children. Both appreciate the beauties of God's creation. Both like being together as a couple in love with each other. Wives, in meekness, jointly inherit the earth with their husbands. Both look forward to their spiritual heritage in heaven (see Ro 6:23).

(1Pe 3:7)
  1. Rebellion against the Lord's command (De 1:43-45; compare 1Sa 28:6).
  2. Regarding iniquity in the heart (Ps 66:18).
  3. Shutting ear to cry of the poor (Pr 21:13; compare Jas 5:4).
  4. Turning away from hearing the law (Pr 28:9).
  5. Hands full of blood (Isa 1:15).

(1Pe 3:7)
  1. Iniquities and sins (Isa 59:2).
  2. Refusing to hear word of God (Pr 1:24-28; compare (Zec 7:12, 13).
  3. Doubting, double-mindedness (Jas 1:6, 8).
  4. Placing pleasures ahead of God (Jas 4:3).
  5. Overbearing spouse (1Pe 3:7).

That your prayers may not be hindered [so that, in order that, to the end that, your prayers not be hindered].[ 44 ] Prayer to God is not fully effective unless the relationship with others is right (see Mt 5:23, 24). This is especially true of the attachment that exists within the marriage bond. God will not hear with favor the prayer of a man who mistreats his wife. He has commanded the husband to love her even as Christ loved the church[ 45 ] (Eph 5:25; see charts HINDERED PRAYERS A and B).

Thus far in the chapter, Peter has written to both wives and husbands. After these admonitions, he begins to speak generally to all Christians.


3:8, 9 Finally, all of you be of one mind, having compassion for one another; love as brothers, be tenderhearted, be courteous; 9 not returning evil for evil or reviling for reviling, but on the contrary blessing, knowing that you were called to this, that you may inherit a blessing.

Finally.[ 46 ] In case you have not noticed, Peter has been plucking at the heart-strings of both husbands and wives. He has been trying to implant within their beings a genuine care for one another. He has encouraged the kind of obedience that springs from a desire within. The following lines addressed to all Christians continue in that general direction.

All of you be of one mind [be, be ye, all, likeminded, of the same mind, have unity of spirit].[ 47 ] What a pleasure it is for brothers and sisters to be united in heart and soul for the cause of the Master (see Ps 133:1). How delightful it is to be of one mind in the Lord (compare Ac 2:46; 4:32; 5:12). The present context so far has dealt with husbands and wives. These seemingly general admonitions have special applications to them as well. They are to live in harmony in thought and action. Another general admonition that may be applied to husbands and wives is:

Be of the same mind toward one another. Do not set your mind on high things, but associate with the humble. Do not be wise in your own opinion (Ro 12:16).

Having compassion for one another [sympathy, sympathizing, sympathetic, compassionate, one of another].[ 48 ] Christians need to talk out any problems calmly and without shouting. One therapist suggested that problem discussions between husbands and wives be made lying down. It is difficult to become angry while reclining. An effort should be made to carry each other's troubles and burdens. Sorrows ought to be recognized and shared. The exhilaration because of accomplishments, recognitions and joys need to be mutual (see Ro 12:15; 1Co 12:16; Heb 13:3).

Love as brothers [love, loving, as brethren, of the brethren, with, full of, brotherly love].[ 49 ]

(1Pe 3:8)
  1. Humble as little child (Mt 18:4).
  2. Not think self more highly than ought to think (Ro 12:3).
  3. Associate with the humble (Ro 12:16).
  4. With all lowliness and gentleness, with longsuffering, bearing with one another in love (Eph 4:2).

(1Pe 3:8)
  1. Let nothing be done through selfish ambition or conceit, but in lowliness of mind let each esteem others better than himself (Php 2:3).
  2. Let this mind be in you which was also in Christ Jesus (Php 2:5).
  3. Yes, all of you be submissive to one another, and be clothed with humility, for "God resists the proud, but gives grace to the humble" (1Pe 5:5).

Be tenderhearted [a tender heart, be pitiful]. Emotions naturally flow from and to committed hearts. Christians are kind and tender-hearted (see Eph 4:32). They have compassion and love for the unfortunate. They are sensitive to the feelings of others. They desire only good for another.

Be courteous [humble humbleminded, and a humble mind][ 50 ] (see charts HUMBLE IN SPIRIT A and B).

[3:9] Not returning evil for evil [do not return, not rendering, evil for evil].[ 51 ] Getting even is not Christlike. A Christian should never retaliate against anyone, especially a brother.

Repay no one evil for evil. Have regard for good things in the sight of all men (Ro 12:17).

Elders or any other Christian should never have to stop a fight but occasionally may find it necessary to do so.

See that no one renders evil for evil to anyone, but always pursue what is good both for yourselves and for all (1Th 5:15; compare Pr 17:13; 20:22).

Or reviling for reviling [or railing for railing].[ 52 ] Christ never returned insults. Paul followed His example. His motto was:

And we labor, working with our own hands. Being reviled, we bless; being persecuted, we endure (Co 4:12; compare 1Pe 2:23).

But on the contrary blessing [but contrariwise, bless, blessing others, but blessing instead].[ 53 ]

Bless those who curse you, and pray for those who spitefully use you (Lu 6:28; compare Mt 5:44).

"Blessing" means to say good and kind words. It may be a simple declaration, "May the Lord bless you." It may be a complimentary or encouraging statement to one who is cursing (Ro 12:14). It may take the form of a prayer for forgiveness (see Lu 23:34; Ac 7:60). Christians follow the example of the Most High Himself who is kind to ungrateful and evil people.

But love your enemies, do good, and lend, hoping for nothing in return; and your reward will be great, and you will be sons of the Most High. For He is kind to the unthankful and evil. 36 Therefore be merciful, just as your Father also is merciful (Lu 6:35, 36).

Knowing that you were called to this [because, hereunto, it was unto this, were ye, ye have been, are thereunto, called].[ 54 ] Being called, in the present context, is equivalent to becoming a Christian (see 1Pe 1:15; 2:21). This is implied by the purpose of the calling, that is, to inherit a blessing.

That you may inherit a blessing [that ye should, might, obtain, inherit blessing, the blessing].[ 55 ] All spiritual blessings are in Christ (Eph 1:3) but the primary one alluded to here is God's mercy in granting eternal life. An heir to eternal life can well afford to take a few insults and respond with kindness. After all, he is on his way to heaven. "Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy" (Mt 5:7).


3:10 For "He who would love life and see good days, let him refrain his tongue from evil, and his lips from speaking deceit."

For He who would love life [for he that will, let him who wants to, love life].[ 56 ] He who wishes to receive eternal life and loves good and pleasant unity here on earth must control his heart and tongue (see verse 10; read Mt 18:21-35; Lu 6:36). The apostle quotes from Psalm 34:12-16:

Who is the man who desires life, and loves many days, that he may see good? 13 Keep your tongue from evil, and your lips from speaking deceit. 14 Depart from evil and do good; seek peace and pursue it. 15 The eyes of the LORD are on the righteous, and His ears are open to their cry. 16 The face of the LORD is against those who do evil, to cut off the remembrance of them from the earth.

And also that every man should eat and drink and enjoy the good of all his labor-- it is the gift of God (Ec 3:13).

A lover of life loves good people. A married couple enjoys the pleasures of marriage (Pr 5:16) and children (Ps 127:5). Everyone enjoys blessings that God richly supplies (1Ti 6:17).

And see good days.[ 57 ] A Christian expects to see good days on the earth. The length and quality of earthly life depends upon his relationship with God. Dear reader, is your life boring or frustrating (see Ec 2:17)? A good heart can improve it (Pr 4:23).

(1Pe 3:10)
  1. Keep your tongue from evil, and your lips from speaking deceit (Ps 34:13).
  2. I will guard my ways, lest I sin with my tongue; I will restrain my mouth with a muzzle, while the wicked are before me (Ps 39:1).
  3. Set a guard, O LORD, over my mouth; keep watch over the door of my lips (Ps 141:3).
  4. He who guards his mouth preserves his life, but he who opens wide his lips shall have destruction (Pr 13:3).

(1Pe 3:10)
  1. Whoever guards his mouth and tongue keeps his soul from troubles (Pr 21:23).
  2. Guard the doors of your mouth from her who lies in your bosom (Mic 7:5).
  3. If anyone among you thinks he is religious, and does not bridle his tongue but deceives his own heart, this one's religion is useless (Jas 1:26).

Let him refrain his tongue from evil [let him keep the tongue, cause his tongue to cease, from evil].[ 58 ] One who desires good days on earth as well one who is an heir of heaven is obligated to control his heart which, in turn, controls the tongue (see Mt 12:34; 15:19, 20).

(1Pe 3:10)
  1. Eve deceived by serpent (Ge 3:4).
  2. Gibeonites deceived Joshua with patched sandals (Jos 9:4).
  3. Amnon pretended illness in order to ravish Tamar (2Sa 13:6).
  4. Gehazi pretended Elisha wanted a reward from Naaman (2Ki 5:22).
  5. Herod deceived wise men (Mt 2:8).

And his lips from speaking deceit [and his lips that they speak no guile].[ 59 ] Deceit is a trait of the wicked. It is evident in their words (Ps 36:3), their counsels (Pr 12:5), their kisses (Pr 27:6) and even in their houses (Jer 5:27). They may deceive their own hearts, believing that they are serving Christ (Mt 7:22; compare Jas 1:26). Christians follow the example of Jesus in whose mouth was found no deceit (1Pe 2:22).


3:11 Let him turn away from evil and do good; let him seek peace and pursue it.

Let him turn away from evil [and let him, eschew, avoid, refrain from, evil].[ 60 ] Another requirement in order for a Christian to "see good days" is to turn from evil. David had great trust in the Lord's care and deliverance. He urged the people of Israel to turn away from evil so they would not be destroyed.

Depart from evil, and do good; and dwell forevermore. 28 For the LORD loves justice, and does not forsake His saints; they are preserved forever, but the descendants of the wicked shall be cut off (Ps 37:27, 28).

During Israel's early rebellion, turning from evil would have saved them from captivity. Sadly, most of them failed to heed the warning (compare Jer 6:16). The prophet Isaiah spoke God's message to them:

When you spread out your hands, I will hide My eyes from you; even though you make many prayers, I will not hear. Your hands are full of blood. 16 "Wash yourselves, make yourselves clean; put away the evil of your doings from before My eyes. Cease to do evil, 17 Learn to do good; seek justice, rebuke the oppressor; defend the fatherless, plead for the widow (Isa 1:15-17).

And do good [and do right].[ 61 ] It is not enough to turn from evil. One must replace the bad actions with doing good, and that toward all men (Ga 6:10; compare Ac 9:36; Eph 2:10; Col 1:10; Tit 3:1).

(1Pe 3:11)
  1. Pursue the things which make for peace and the things by which one may edify another (Ro 14:19).
  2. Pursue righteousness, faith, love, peace with those who call on the Lord out of a pure heart (2Ti 2:22).
  3. Pursue peace with all people, and holiness, without which no one will see the Lord (Heb 12:14).
  4. The fruit of righteousness is sown in peace by those who make peace (Jas 3:18).

Let him seek peace.[ 62 ] There must first be a desire for peace. The desire causes one to seek and promote it (see chart PURSUING PEACE).

Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called sons of God (Mt 5:9).

If it is possible, as much as depends on you, live peaceably with all men (Ro 12:18).

And pursue it [and ensue it].[ 63 ] The Greek for "pursue" is stronger than "seek." It implies earnestly going after peace, eagerly seeking it. This is essential.


3:12 For the eyes of the Lord are on the righteous, and His ears are open to their prayers; but the face of the Lord is against those who do evil."

For the eyes of the Lord are on the righteous [because the eyes of the Lord are upon, over, the righteous].[ 64 ] The eyes of the Lord are on the righteous for good. He understands, protects and provides for His own. The eyes of the Lord saw man's need for a Savior. His Providence protects and guides them. He gives them good days. Like a shepherd watches his sheep, so His eyes look down upon His saints. Elihu reminded Job that:

He does not withdraw His eyes from the righteous; but they are on the throne with kings, for He has seated them forever, and they are exalted (Job 36:7).

The Lord told David of His watchful eye:

I will instruct you and teach you in the way you should go; I will guide you with My eye (Ps 32:8).

The righteous fear the Lord and hope in Him.

Behold, the eye of the LORD is on those who fear Him, on those who hope in His mercy (Ps 33:18).

And His ears are open to their prayers [and his ears are open, towards, unto, their prayer, supplication, supplications, hear their prayers].[ 65 ] One of the blessings that comes because the eyes of the Lord are upon the righteous is answered prayer.

One who turns away his ear from hearing the law, even his prayer is an abomination (Pr 28:9).

Confess your trespasses to one another, and pray for one another, that you may be healed. The effective, fervent prayer of a righteous man avails much (Jas 5:16).

But the face of the Lord is against [but the face of the Lord is upon].[ 66 ] When the face of the Lord is against someone His wrath is stirred. That person's prayers do not avail anything.

When God finally decided to execute His judgment upon impennitent Judah and Israel, His wrath was inescapable.

Therefore thus says the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel: "Behold, I will set My face against you for catastrophe and for cutting off all Judah" (Jer 44:11).

Though they go into captivity before their enemies, from there I will command the sword, and it shall slay them. I will set My eyes on them for harm and not for good (Am 9:4).

Those who do evil [them that do evil].[ 67 ] Doing evil begins with an unlawful desire followed by yielding to temptation in order to satisfy that desire. The face of the Lord is against those who do evil in the sense that He intends to punish them. This is a strong motivation to repent and return to God.


3:13 And who is he who will harm you if you become followers of what is good?

Blessed are you when they revile and persecute you, and say all kinds of evil against you falsely for My sake. 12 Rejoice and be exceedingly glad, for great is your reward in heaven, for so they persecuted the prophets who were before you (Mt 5:11, 12).

And do not fear those who kill the body but cannot kill the soul. But rather fear Him who is able to destroy both soul and body in hell (Mt 10:28).

Many men and women of faith were tortured and killed (Heb 11:33-38).

My brethren, take the prophets, who spoke in the name of the Lord, as an example of suffering and patience (Jas 5:10).

In chapter 4, Peter repeats the possibility that his readers will suffer.

If you are reproached for the name of Christ, blessed are you, for the Spirit of glory and of God rests upon you. On their part He is blasphemed, but on your part He is glorified (1Pe 4:14).

And who is he who will harm you? [now who is it, is there to, and who shall, that will, injure you?][ 68 ] The answer to Peter's question is not "Nobody." Many of God's people have suffered at the hands of evil men. David was persecuted without a cause[ 69 ] (Ps 119:161; compare 1Sa 24:11; 26:18; Ps 119:23). Countless saints have been persecuted for righteousness' sake and many thousands killed (see Heb 112:35-38; note on 1Pe 3:17). God wills no harm to those who zealously follow and practice what is right but, at times, He allows evil men to harm the saints (see also Mt 5:10-12; 2Ti 3:12). Some think that Peter intends to convey the idea that even though the outer man suffers, the inner man is not harmed so long as he continues to be zealous after what is good (see Lu 12:4, 5; Joh 10:; Ro 8:35-37; Heb 3:6).

A great many rulers and others have enough professionalism to be fair in dealing with others. Non-christian employers sometimes appreciate and maintain a peaceful relationship with their Christian employees. Some go out of their way to avoid harming sincere Christians who may be under their oversight. Believers who serve under such administrators are indeed fortunate.

When a man's ways please the LORD, he makes even his enemies to be at peace with him (Pr 16:7).

If you become followers of what is good [if you are, ye be, have become, imitators, zealous for that which is right].[ 70 ] Because the Greek is stronger than "become followers," some have rendered it "prove zealous," "eager" or devoted." It implies zeal, ardor, enthusiasm, eagerness and fervor for what is good (see Tit 2:14). Christians discern the good and eagerly follow it (see chart FOLLOWING WHAT IS GOOD).

But solid food belongs to those who are of full age, that is, those who by reason of use have their senses exercised to discern both good and evil (Heb 5:14).

(1Pe 3:13)
  1. Follow good doctrine (1Ti 4:6; Tit 1:9; 2:1).
  2. Good examples (2Th 3:9; 1Ti 4:12; Tit 2:7).
  3. Good works (Mt 5:16; Heb 10:24; 1Pe 1:12).
  4. A good conscience (Ac 24:16; 1Ti 1:5, 19; 1Pe 3:16).


3:14 But even if you should suffer for righteousness' sake, you are blessed. "And do not be afraid of their threats, nor be troubled."

But even if you should suffer [but and if, but if also, ye, do ye, suffer].[ 71 ] The Holy Spirit is aware that righteous people may or may not suffer. Righteousness in and of itself is no inoculation against it (but see Pr 15:1; 25:15)..

For righteousness' sake [for righteousness].[ 72 ] Some who have suffered for righteousness are Abel, Joseph, Job, Jeremiah, the apostles and Christ Himself.

You are blessed [blessed, happy, are ye, you will be blessed].[ 73 ]

Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven (Mt 5:3).

Many man and women of faith have been reproached, some even tortured and killed (Heb 11:33-38).

If you are reproached for the name of Christ, blessed are you, for the Spirit of glory and of God rests upon you. On their part He is blasphemed, but on your part He is glorified (1Pe 4:14; compare Mt 5:10; Ac 5:42).

And do not be afraid of their threats [and fear not, do not fear, have no fear of, but be not afraid of, them, their terror, their fear].[ 74 ] The Greek genitive of the object makes "their threats" to be the terror in the hearts those being persecuted. However, the simple figure of speech called metonymy puts the effect for the cause. Peter is telling his readers not to fear whatever the persecutors may do that would normally cause people to fear.

Nor be troubled [neither be upset by them].[ 75 ] Since Peter's readers have trusted in Christ and committed their lives to Him, they need not become agitated and wrought up because of persecution.


3:15, 16 But sanctify the Lord God in your hearts, and always be ready to give a defense to everyone who asks you a reason for the hope that is in you, with meekness and fear; 16 having a good conscience, that when they defame you as evildoers, those who revile your good conduct in Christ may be ashamed.

But sanctify the Lord God [but reverence Christ as Lord, the Lord the Christ].[ 76 ] Assuming that the Alexandrian text is correct with "Christ as Lord," the implication is that one is to set Him apart in the heart as a ruler with all authority (see Mt 28:19). To do this implies respect for and submission to His NT will. Playing loose with the revealed word of Christ is equivalent to not sanctifying Him. This was illustrated as Moses failed to sanctify God before the people. This he did when he struck the rock after being commanded to speak to it (see De 32:51). Sanctifying Christ in the heart reverently acknowledges Him as the holy Lord. It interferes with doing or saying what is wrong. It prompts obedience to Him.

In your hearts.[ 77 ] That which comes out of the heart of man defiles him (see Mt 15:11; Mk 7:20, 21). From an evil heart comes evil actions. From a good heart comes that which is good. In the innermost being, Christ is to be enthroned. In the very center of the heart of a Christian, He who is on the heart's throne controls the springs of his life (Pr 4:23).

(1Pe 3:15)
  1. Go home to your friends, and tell them what great things the Lord has done for you (Mk 5:19).
  2. We cannot but speak the things which we have seen and heard (Ac 4:20).
  3. We also believe and therefore speak (2Co 4:13)
  4. Do not be ashamed of the testimony of our Lord (2Ti 1:8).


And always be ready to give a defense [always be, and be always, prepared, being ready, to make defence, a defense, to give answer, an answer].[ 78 ] What kind of conviction did the martyrs have? Their persecutors found out as the saints who were dying were given an opportunity to give an account of their belief. Most confessed their faith and did not deny.

To everyone who asks you a reason [to anyone, to every man, that asketh, that asks, who calls you, to account, to give an account].[ 79 ]

For the hope that is in you [of, concerning, the hope that is in you].[ 80 ] The hope of one who is called upon to die for Christ is consonant with his conviction, provided, of course that he or she is a Christian. Some OT examples of giving account of faith or hope under pressure are Joshua and Caleb (Nu 14:6-9), David (Ps 20:7; 27:3; 46:1, 2), Shadrach, Meshech and Obednego (Da 3:16-18) and Isaiah (Isa 12:2). Some NT examples are Stephen (Ac 7:55, 59, 60) and the apostles. When at his final court trial for his own life, Paul used the opportunity to preach the gospel to the great crowd gathered (see 2Ti 4:17).

With meekness [but, yet, yet do it, defend it, with gentleness].[ 81 ] The defense made by Christians must be presented with gentleness, never with hate, pride, deception or the hope of personal gain. The defense should be given with calmness and meekness. "Blessed are the meek for they shall inherit the earth" (Mt 5:5).

And fear [and reverence, and respect].[ 82 ] A persecutor questioning a Christian should be respected as a human being (see 1Pe 1:17) but above all the Lord of heaven should be honored, magnified, glorified and reverently obeyed (see Ac 4:19, 20; 5:29).


[3:16] Having a good conscience [and keep your conscience clear].[ 83 ] A good conscience was given each Christian at baptism (verse 21). A good conscience is one free from the knowledge of guilt. A person with a clear conscience believes he has done right or has been forgiven. A person in error or in sin may still have a "good conscience" in the sense that Paul did while he was persecuting Christians (see Ac 23:1). A Christian must be careful to never say or do anything that would defame or dishonor Christ especially when under stress.

That when they defame you as evildoers [that, so that, as to that, whereas, wherein, in which, ye are abused, spoken against, they speak evil of, against, you, as of evildoers].[ 84 ] Christians will be slandered. They expect false and malicious accusations to be brought against them. Verbal abuse levied against a faithful Christian may be insignificant in this respect. His light shines so brightly that whatever small spark there may be in what the reviler says amounts to no more than a lightning bug at high noon.

Those who revile [that, they who, falsely accuse, malign, calumniate, against].[ 85 ] Reviling is similar to slander but emphasis is upon the abusive manner in which the charges are brought.

Your conduct in Christ [your good behavior, conversation, manner of life, in Christ].[ 86 ] Worldly people call Christians "goody two-shoes" because they do not drink. They call them sissies because they do not commit fornication. They term them "milk toasts" because they do not curse or swear (see charts SLANDER AGAINST EARLY CHRISTIANS A and B at 1Pe 2:12).

May be ashamed [they may be put to shame].[ 87 ]


3:17 For it is better, if it is the will of God, to suffer for doing good than for doing evil.

For it is better.[ 88 ] Peter compares the value of suffering for different causes. Most people consider suffering imposed upon criminals as payment of a debt to society. If that is the case, there may be some merit in it. But whatever is endured because of God's will is of far greater value than anything suffered as a result of committing a crime.

If it is the will of God [if that should be, if thus it is, God's will, if the will of God be so, should so will, should will it].[ 89 ] Evidently the Lord wills that certain Christians suffer.

To suffer for doing good [that ye suffer for doing right, for well doing, as well-doers].[ 90 ] In support of the premise that good people will suffer for what is right, consider that Jesus predicted Peter was to be bound and carried to his death (Joh 21:18). He also foretold that Paul would suffer greatly for His name (Ac 9:15, 16).

Than for doing evil [than for, rather than, doing wrong, evil doing, than [as] evildoers].[ 91 ] There is no merit in suffering per se. A criminal earns retribution because of his wrongdoing. It is only right that he receive punishment. The teaching of the Bible is that suffering for doing right is better than suffering for doing wrong. There are for several reasons (see chart SUFFERING FOR DOING RIGHT).

(1Pe 3:17)
  1. There is no sin on the part of the sufferer.
  2. It is possible that God wills it.
  3. It reinforces dependence upon God.
  4. It fosters humility.
  5. By it one sets an effective example.
  6. It strengthens character.

David wrote about the benefit of affliction. A great many Christians have been helped in their life by suffering:

Before I was afflicted I went astray, but now I keep Your word (Ps 119:67).

The fact that a Christian suffers does not prove that he is displeasing to God. Christ Himself who was completely without sin suffered (see 1Pe 3:18). In addition to suffering for right or wrong, there is suffering that comes upon a person for no apparent reason (see Ps 109:3; 119:161). However, the way suffering Christians react to it may be observed, evaluated and imitated by others.


3:18-20 For Christ also suffered once for sins, the just for the unjust, that He might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh but made alive by the Spirit, 19 by whom also He went and preached to the spirits in prison, 20 who formerly were disobedient, when once the Divine longsuffering waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was being prepared, in which a few, that is, eight souls, were saved through water.

For Christ also suffered once for sins [because Christ died, also died, hath, indeed has, once suffered, for our sins, for sins once, once for all].[ 92 ] The construction of the Greek phrase implies that Christ died to take away sins, to remove, destroy, expiate and atone for them. The finality of His death for sins implies: (1) There was no other way to take away sins. (2) Only one offering was necessary. (3) People would do well to learn how to make application of it in their own lives (see chart CHRIST SUFFERED ONCE FOR SINS).

(1Pe 3:18)
  1. For sins (Ro 8:3; 1Co 15:3; Heb 10:5, 10).
  2. Once for all (Heb 9:15-28; 10:10, 12, 14).
  3. The Just [Christ] (Mt 27:19; Lu 23:47; Ac 3:14; 7:52; 22:14; 1Pe 1:19; 2:22; 1Jo 2:1).
  4. For the unjust [man] (Ro 3:23).
  5. That He might bring us to God (Ro 3:25; 5:1, 2; Eph 2:13-16, 18; 3:12; Heb 7:25; 10:19-22; 12:22-24).
  6. Adapted from Kelcy 75, 76

The just for the unjust [the righteous for the unrighteous].[ 93 ] The sinless Son of God takes away sins (see note on 1Pe 2:22). He is the just one. All accountable persons have sinned (Rom 3:23). Isaiah 59:1, 2, shows that sins separate people from God. All sinners, like the Gentiles Paul described, are "far off" or "far away" (Eph 2:13, 17).

That He might bring us to God.
[ 94 ] By the blood of Christ the unrighteous are "brought near" (Eph 2:13). Peter shows that Christ died in order to remove sins so that people might be brought back to God. The bringing back to God is not done automatically or universally just because He died for them. Sinners must believe. They must exercise their faith by obeying the gospel, including repentance, confession of Christ and baptism. As people return to Him in this manner, sins are forgiven (see Ac 2:38; 22:16). Through faith in Christ they are brought into God's grace which gives hope (Ro 5:1, 2). Through faith in Him they have "access with confidence" (Eph 3:12). Erring children of God may return by repentance, confession of sin and prayer (see Ac 8:22; 1Jo 1:7-9).

Let us therefore come boldly to the throne of grace, that we may obtain mercy and find grace to help in time of need (Heb 4:16).

Through Christ, many have become believers in God so that in Him they may enjoy hope.

Who through Him believe in God, who raised Him from the dead and gave Him glory, so that your faith and hope are in God (1Pe 1:21).

Being put to death.[ 95 ] Other passages teach that Christ gave Himself (Ga 1:4; 2:20). The present verse emphasizes man's part in His death. He was "put to death" (Ac 2:23). Because of jealousy, unbelief, hatred and lies He was "put to death."

Now the chief priests, the elders, and all the council sought false testimony against Jesus to put Him to death (Mt 26:59; compare 27:1; Mk 14:55).

John called attention to man's part in killing Jesus when he wrote, "Where they crucified Him" (Joh 19:18). On Pentecost, Peter laid the charge directly upon the Jews, stating that they used "lawless hands" (that is, by the assistance of the Romans) to carry out the shameful crucifiixion.

Him, being delivered by the determined purpose and foreknowledge of God, you have taken by lawless hands, have crucified, and put to death (Ac 2:23).

In the flesh [in flesh].[ 96 ] One reason the Word (the eternal Christ) became flesh was to suffer for mankind (Joh 1:14).

Therefore, since Christ suffered for us in the flesh, arm yourselves also with the same mind, for he who has suffered in the flesh has ceased from sin (1Pe 4:1).

It was necessary for Christ to become man in order to die for sins. In the mind of the all-knowing God, there was no way to save man other than by His death. God's purpose was that all those benefiting from the death of His Son could be presented blameless before Him.

And you, who once were alienated and enemies in your mind by wicked works, yet now He has reconciled 22 in the body of His flesh through death, to present you holy, and blameless, and above reproach in His sight (Col 1:21, 22).

(1Pe 3:18)
  1. Jesus said of His body, "Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up" (Joh 2:19; compare Mt 26:61; Mk 14:58; 15:29).
  2. I lay down My life that I may take it again (Joh 10:18).
  3. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again (Joh 10:18).

But made alive by the Spirit [but quickened in spirit, in the spirit].[ 97 ] The lexicons at my disposal are unanimous that "spirit" in this verse is not the Holy Spirit, but the spiritual component of Christ in contrast to His flesh.[ 98 ] Some go so far as to suggest that "the Spirit" was His human spirit. However, there is no question but that it took divine power to quicken or made Him alive. He arose bodily from the tomb (see chart CHRIST RAISED HIMSELF).[ 99 ] His resurrection offers real hope to Christians. It particularly gives living hope to those losing their lives in martyrdom. It gives proof that He was who and what He claimed to be. He was the Son of God (Mk 14:61, 62). He was God the Son (Joh 1:1-3; Ac 20:28). He was without sin (Joh 8:46; 1Pe 2:22).

And declared to be the Son of God with power according to the Spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead (Ro 1:4).

(1Pe 3:18)
  1. Even so the Son gives life to whom He will (Joh 5:21).
  2. All who are in the graves will hear His voice and come forth (Joh 5:28, 29).
  3. Of all He has given Me I should lose nothing, but should raise it up at the last day (Joh 6:39, 40).
  4. Even so in Christ all shall be made alive (1Co 15:22).

[3:19] By whom also He went and preached [in which, which also, also he went, also going, he preached].[ 100 ] In the same spirit in which Jesus was made alive, He made proclamation to spirits in prison. The verse does not make it clear whether the spirit of Christ preached personally or through another (compare 1Pe 1:11). It is also vague as to the time when the spirits were in prison and when they were preached to. From this verse alone, without the context, He might have preached to them at any time from Noah's day to Peter's. It is the writer's view that he did not do the preaching personally but through another such as Noah (see 2Pe 2:5). The "Spirit of Christ" was in the prophets and revealed certain things to them (1Pe 1:11). The spirit of Christ was in Noah.[ 101 ] As I understand it, Christ, in spirit, preached through Noah, a preacher of righteousness (2Pe 2:5).

James Macknight points out that "He went and preached" is a pleonasm[ 102 ] meaning nothing more than "He preached."[ 103 ] It is pointless to stress "He went."


In His spirit, Jesus preached or made proclamation. Some people read into this verse that which it does not say, such as that He did the preaching personally between His death and resurrection (see chart WHAT PETER DOES NOT SAY ABOUT SPIRITS IN PRISON).

(1Pe 3:19, 20)
  1. That Jesus preached personally.
  2. That He preached the Gospel.
  3. That spirits were disembodied when preached to.
  4. That Jesus preached between His death and resurrection.
  5. That Jesus offered salvation to dead people.

To the spirits in prison [unto the spirits which are in prison].[ 104 ] To which spirits exactly was proclamation made? Only to those who were disobedient in the days of Noah. It was easy to identify these people during Noah's lifetime. Everybody outside Noah's family was disobedient. However, if the proclamation occurred in the Hadean world, how were these spirits in that dark domain separated from all others? And why these particular spirits anyway? If the intent was to offer another chance to sinners who died without salvation, why not give all of them an equal opportunity to hear the preaching? To be fair, at least everyone killed during a catastrophe ought to have equal oppornunity. If the preaching was only an announcement of the triumph and authority of Christ, why exclude the proclamation to the others?

Inasmuch as the word "now" is not in the Greek but is supplied in some translations, the immediate text does not specify when the spirits were in prison. The spirits in question may have been in prison during Noah's day[ 105 ] or in a Hadean prison at the time Peter wrote. Had they, like sinful angels,[ 106 ] been committed to pits of darkness by the time Peter wrote?[ 107 ]

(1Pe 3:20)
  1. My Spirit shall not strive with man forever, because he also is flesh; nevertheless his days shall be 120 years (Ge 6:3; compare verse 13).
  2. Ten plagues before destroying Egyptians (Ex 7:19-12:29).
  3. Iniquity of the Amorite not yet complete (Ge 15:16; compare 1Ki 11:12).

(1Pe 3:20)
  1. Or do you think lightly of the riches of His kindness and forbearance and patience, not knowing that the kindness of God leads you to repentance? (Ro 2:4)
  2. The patience of God kept waiting in the days of Noah (1Pe 3:20).
  3. Patient . . . not wishing any to perish (2Pe 3:9).

[3:20] Who formerly were disobedient [which sometime, that aforetime, heretofore, once, did not obey].[ 108 ] The Greek is general enough to include persons alive any time during the days of Noah. There is no doubt that the spirits to whom Christ made proclamation had been disobedient during Noah's lifetime. The Greek verb suggests that they refused obedience, implying that they had heard the divine message. Before the flood, we have the following:

And the LORD said, "My Spirit shall not strive with man forever, for he is indeed flesh; yet his days shall be one hundred and twenty years" (Ge 6:3).

Except for Noah and his family, God's appeal to save the population of earth was spurned. Evidence of their disobedience is demonstrated by their evil thoughts and wicked actions.

Then the LORD saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every intent of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually (Ge 6:5).

(1Pe 3:19)
  1. Between His death and resurrection, Christ offered salvation to those in Hades who missed it on earth [but see Mt 25:31-46; 2Co 5:10].
  2. Or, at that time, He preached to angels that sinned.
  3. Or, before the flood, Christ's spirit through Noah preached to people then living [Noah was a preacher of righteousness, 2Pe 2:5].
  4. Spirits were in the prison of sin before the flood.
  5. Or, spirits were in prison when Peter wrote.

When once the Divine longsuffering waited [when God's patience, the longsuffering of God, waited].[ 109 ] God kept waiting patiently. There are many examples in the Bible where He warned sinful people through the prophets before He finally destroyed them (see 1Ki 21:29; 2Ki 13:23; Ec 8:11; Isa 48:9; Lu 13:7-9; see charts PUNISHMENT DELAYED A and B).

In the days of Noah [in the days when Noah].[ 110 ] God exercised great patience with the wicked and violent people in Noah's time. He has often waited long before destroying the wicked. After the Jews rejected Christ, He waited about forty years before destroying Jerusalem by means of the Roman army.

While the ark was being prepared [while the ark was preparing, a preparing, during the building of the ark].[ 111 ] The Hebrew word for "ark" is TEVAH a chest or a vessel to float.[ 112 ] It is not at all certain that it took Noah one hundred twenty years to build the ark. The Genesis record does not actually state this (see Ge 6:3).

In which [wherein, into which].[ 113 ] The only place of safety during the flood was inside the ark. Noah and his family were saved in it.

A few [few].[ 114 ] Many were lost. Few were saved (compare Mt 7:13, 14). Christians should never lose heart because the majority do not follow the truth.

That is, eight souls [that is, eight persons].[ 115 ] Eight people in all were saved in the ark. They were Noah, his wife, his three sons Shem, Ham and Japheth and their three wives (see Ge 7:7; 10:1). Although Noah eventually had sixteen grandchildren, insofar as the record goes, he had none on board the ark.[ 116 ]

Were saved [were brought safely].[ 117 ] Noah and his family were "saved" in the ark. They were floated up and away from the destruction of the wicked. Through the means of the water, they were brought safely to land. This information provides the basis for the statement that baptism saves (verse 21).

Through [by].[ 118 ] It was through, by means of, the water that Noah and his family were carried away from the old sinful environment.

Water [the water].[ 119 ] The buoyancy of the water lifted the ark up and away from an old world polluted by sin. Water deposited it in Turkey on the mountains of Ararat in a freshly cleansed environment.


3:21, 22 There is also an antitype which now saves us-- baptism (not the removal of the filth of the flesh, but the answer of a good conscience toward God), through the resurrection of Jesus Christ, 22 who has gone into heaven and is at the right hand of God, angels and authorities and powers having been made subject to Him.

There is also an antitype [the like figure which corresponds, and corresponding, whereunto, to this, to that, which also after a true likeness, which figure also].[ 120 ] The salvation by water in the ark prefigured salvation in the water of baptism. There is no consensus among scholars as to the meaning of the term "antitype" or "true likeness." The Greek ANTITUPOS antitype (as in the NKJV) is used only one other time in the Greek NT where it is rendered "copies."

For Christ has not entered the holy places made with hands, which are ANTITUPA copies of the true, but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us (Heb 9:24).

There is no doubt that it was the water of the flood that brought those in the ark to safety. Noah's salvation by means of water is like, resembles corresponds to, analogous to and is parallel to, baptism that saves us.

Which now saves us-- baptism [even immersion, also now doth, doth now, save you].[ 121 ] Regardless of the failure of many commentators to agree on the definition of ANTITUPON (see note above There is also an antitype and footnotes), nearly all reputable scholars whom I have read concur that the salvation resulting from baptism corresponds to, and is a fulfillment of the salvation of Noah. Although it is clear that the blood of Christ washes away sins (see Ac 22:16; Re 1:5), salvation is through, or by means of, water. Just as surely as Noah was saved by water, people in the church age are saved by water baptism.

There is no room for debate as to whether baptism now saves. Peter declares that it does. It saves from sin but not from persecution or physical death. As a matter of fact, many of Peter's early readers would would experience both persecution and death. Beginning at Pentecost, Peter had been teaching that baptism saves (see Ac 2:38; 10:48). In baptism, Paul's sins were washed away (Ac 22:16). Water, in itself, has no inherent power to wash away sins but the blood of Christ does (see note on 1Pe 1:3). When penitent sinners are baptized into the death of Christ, by faith, they come in contact with the blood of Christ that cleanses them from sin.

And from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the firstborn from the dead, and the ruler over the kings of the earth. To Him who loved us and washed us from our sins in His own blood (Re 1:5).

The Greek present tense of "saves" suggests that baptism continues to save. Some would modify that interpretation by calling attention to the word "now." Baptism saves now! Consider please that it continues to save as more and more sinners come to Christ and are immersed for the remission of sins. Likewise, the blood of Jesus continues to cleanse[ 122 ] Christians who confess their sins (see note on 1Jo 1:7). There is no need to be re-baptized after every subsequent sin. One is not saved before baptism. However, after baptism, forgiveness is always available by the merits of Calvary through confession of sin and prayer (Ac 8:22; 1Jo 1:9).

Not the removal of the filth of the flesh [not a, not as a, the, putting away, putting off, of dirt from the body].[ 123 ] The water of baptism itself does not wash away sin nor is it intended to cleanse from dirt. Its purpose is not to wash away external bodily pollution.

But the answer of a good conscience toward God [but the, as an, interrogation of, seeking, appeal, demand, for a clear conscience, to, before, God].[ 124 ] Most translators understand this phrase to mean an appeal to God for a good conscience. In other words, a penitent sinner comes to baptism in order to receive a good conscience. This rules out infant baptism because babies are incapable of doing that.

A good conscience is a characteristic of a righteous or forgiven person. Before baptism, the sinner is conscious of being unforgiven. He desires to be rid of his sense of guilt. After being baptized into Christ, his sins are forgiven and his conscience is cleared. Then his conscience is "good." There is no longer a need to be ashamed becuase past sins are forgiven. This accounts for rejoicing after baptism (see Ac 8:39; 16:34). The Hebrew writer calls it "the beginning of our confidence" (Heb 3:14). Christians, throughout life, and especially during persecution, strive to keep the good conscience given them at baptism (compare verse 16).[ 125 ]

Through the resurrection of Jesus Christ [by the resurrection of Jesus Christ].[ 126 ] I am tired of reading comments that weaken the truth of what Peter wrote. For example, in Jerry Falwell's Liberty Bible Commentary, we have an attempt to deny what the Holy Spirit inspired the apostle to write:

Technically, of course, it is not true that baptism saves; the merely mechanical performance of the religious rite would only make a sinner into a very wet sinner.[ 127 ]

Peter was not writing about a baptism that was "merely mechanical performance." Scriptural baptism saves because of its connection with the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. Salvation is "through faith in the working of God, who raised Him from the dead" (Col 2:12). From baptism one rises to "newness of life" (Ro 6:4). The power of baptism to cleanse from sin is related to the resurrection of Christ. If He had not been raised, He (like Buddha, Bahaullah, Mohammed and others) could not save anyone.

Therefore He is also able to save to the uttermost those who come to God through Him, since He always lives to make intercession for them (Heb 7:25).

I quote here a judicious comment from Richard Lenski, a Lutheran scholar, on the purpose of baptism:

Thus the risen Lord instituted baptism for all nations (Mt 28:19) with the promise that it saves (Mk 16:16). Without his resurrection there is no baptism, no salvation, no conscience-cleansing to comfort us when we are persecuted for righteousness' sake, in fact, no righteousness at all. Redemption was finished on the cross (Joh 19:30); the resurrection is God's own attestation to this effect (Ac 2:36, with verse 38 on baptism; 5:30-32).[ 128 ]

Adam Clarke, a Methodist, with a degree of wisdom, wrote:

Noah believed in God, walked uprightly before him, and found grace in his sight; he obeyed him in building the ark, and God made it the means of his salvation from the waters of the deluge. Baptism implies a consecration and dedication of the soul and body to God, the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. He who is faithful to his baptismal covenant, taking God through Christ, by the eternal Spirit, for his portion, is saved here from his sins; and through the resurrection of Christ from the dead, has the well-grounded hope of eternal glory.[ 129 ]

(1Pe 3:22)
  1. Seated in "the heavenly places" (Eph 1:20).
  2. Highly exalted Him and given Him the name which is above every name (Php 2:9).
  3. God, Your God, has anointed You with the oil of gladness more than Your companions (Heb 1:9).
  4. Worthy is the Lamb who was slain to receive power and riches and wisdom, and strength and honor and glory and blessing! (Re 5:12).

[3:22] Who has gone into heaven [who is gone, having gone, into heaven, who entered heaven].[ 130 ] On Pentecost, Peter preached to the Jews saying Christ had gone to heaven:

Whom heaven must receive until the times of restoration of all things, which God has spoken by the mouth of all His holy prophets since the world began (Ac 3:21).

In another sermon, Peter taught that Jesus is the exalted One: "Him God has exalted to His right hand to be Prince and Savior" (Ac 5:31).

(1Pe 3:22)
  1. Wisdom of God made known through the church to rulers and authorities in heavenly places (Eph 3:10).
  2. Our struggle is not against flesh and blood, but against rulers, against the powers, against the world forces of this darkness, against the spiritual forces of wickedness in the heavenly places (Eph 6:12).
  3. By Him all things were created . . . whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities (Col 1:16).
  4. Head over all rule and authority (Col 2:10).
  5. Disarmed rulers and authorities (Col 2:15).

And is at the right hand of God [is on, and is on, who is at, the right hand of God][ 131 ] (see chart CHRIST EXALTED ABOVE ALL).

Angels [after, of, with angels].[ 132 ] Angels are multitudinous. Their number is at least ten thousand times ten thousand, and thousands of thousands (Re 5:11). They are the messengers of Christ (Heb 1:14). One of them, Michael, is specifically called the archangel (Jude 9). Christ is over him and all the others.

(1Pe 3:22)
  1. To be obeyed (1Pe 1:2).
  2. His spirit was in the prophets (1Pe 1:11).
  3. Rejected of men, precious in the sight of God (1Pe 1:4).
  4. Suffered for you, leaving an example (1Pe 2:21).
  5. Committed no sin (1Pe 2:22).

(1Pe 3:22)
  1. Uttered no threats, kept on entrusting Himself to God (1Pe 2:23).
  2. In spirit, preached to spirits in prison (1Pe 3:19).
  3. At the right hand of God (1Pe 3:22).
  4. The Chief Shepherd (1Pe 5:4).

And authorities [authorities].[ 133 ] Since Christ has all authority (Mt 28:19), all other so-called authorities are subject to Him (see charts AUTHORITIES; LORD OF ALL CREATION A and B).

And powers.[ 134 ] One of the powers, Satan, the major one who had the power of death, has been overcome by Christ (Heb 2:14).

Having been made subject to Him [subject, being made, were made, subject, being subjected, unto him][ 135 ] (see charts ALL SUBJECT TO CHRIST A and B).

(1Pe 3:22)
  1. God has made Him both Lord and Christ (Ac 2:36).
  2. Lord of both the dead and of the living (Ro 14:9.
  3. All things in subjection under His feet (Eph 1:22).
  4. A name which is above every name (Php 2:9).

(1Pe 3:22)
  1. So that He Himself might come to have first place in everything (Col 1:18).
  2. Much better than the angels, as He has inherited a more excellent name than they (Heb 1:4).
  3. Worthy is the Lamb that was slain to receive power and riches and wisdom and might and honor and glory and blessing (Re 5:12).


[ 1 ]The basic text in this chapter is the NKJV. Scripture taken from the New King James Version. Copyright 1979, 1980, 1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. Used by permission. All rights reserved. Alternate phrases in brackets are from ASV, Darby, ESB, KJV and RSV and occasionally another version. Greek transliteration follows the BibleSoft method.
[ 2 ]GUNAIKES, wives (Marshall 915; Lenski 127); you married women (Williams); wives or women. The context requires the rendering wives. The NEB is out of line with "you women."
[ 3 ]HOMOIOOS, likewise (Marshall 915; Lenski 127); in like manner with servants (Vincent 1.649); in like manner [from the adjective HOMOIOS like, resembling, such as, the same as], likewise (Vine 674); in the same way (Williams).
[ 4 ]HUPOTASSOMENAI, submitting yourselves (Marshall 915); literally, being in subjection, or submitting yourselves; the same word which is used of the submission of servants [1Pe 2:18] (Vincent 1.650); subject yourselves, be subjected or subordinated, obey . . . toward the husband (Arndt 848); primarily a military term, to rank under [HUPO under, TASSOO to arrange], denotes, in the middle or passive voice, to subject oneself, to obey, be subject to (Vine 1099, 1100); must be submissive (Williams); continuing to be in subjection (Lenski 127).
[ 5 ]TOIS IDIOIS ANDRASIN, to the [your] own husbands (Marshall 915); in contrast to women, husbands (Arndt 66); denotes, in general, men, adult males [in contrast to ANTHROPOI, which generically denotes human beings, male or female] (Vine 570); men, in contrast to women, especially husbands (Arndt 66); to your husbands (Williams); to their own husbands (Lenski 127).
[ 6 ]HINA KAI EI TINES APEITHOUSIN TOO LOGOO, in order that if even any disobey the word (Marshall 915); the sense disbelieve, greatly disputed, . . . seems most probable in John 3:36; Acts 14:1; 19:9; Ro 15:31, and only slightly less probable in Romans 2:8; 1Pe 2:8; 3:1, perhaps also verses 20; 4:17 (Arndt 82); refuse to be persuaded, refuse belief, disobedient (Vine 311); if any of them do not believe the message (Williams); even if some are disobedient to the Word (Lenski 127); the word is "the doctrine of Christ (2 John 9); "the faith" (Jude 3); the gospel [Mk 16:15, 16; Ro 1:16] (Littrell).
[ 7 ]ANEU LOGOU, without a word (Marshall 915; Williams); without [a] word; speaking [opposite of "Be silent"] (Arndt 477); even the Revisers have wrongly inserted the article, and have quite spoilt the sense of the verse by rendering without the word (Nunn 56); without word (Lenski 127).
[ 8 ]KERDEETHEESONTAI, they will [may] be gained (Marshall 915); be gained (Vincent 650); the will [may] be gained (Marshall 915); gained, passive (Arndt 429); of winning souls into the Kingdom of God by godly conduct (Vine 469); they may be won over (Williams); they may be gained (Lenski 127).
[ 9 ]DIA TEES TOON GUNAIKOON ANASTROPHEES, through the of the[ir] wives conduct (Marshall 915); way of life, conduct, behavior (Arndt 61); literally, a turning back [ANA back, STREPHOO to turn], manner of life, living, behavior (Vine 104); through the living of the wives (Williams); by means of the conduct (Lenski 127).
[ 10 ]EPOPTEUSANTES, observing (Marshall 915); [from EPI upon, and a form of HORAOO to see], used of the witnessing of a spectator, or overseer (Vine 107); when they see (Williams); having looked upon (Lenski 127).
[ 11 ]TEEN HAGNEEN HUMOON, the pure of you (Marshall 915); pure from every fault, immaculate (Vine 175); pure, holy, of things [behavior] (Arndt 9, 10); pure from every fault, immaculate (Thayer 8); how chaste (Williams); pure (Lenski 127).
[ 12 ]ANASTROPHEEN HUMOON, conduct of you (Marshall 915); way of life, conduct, behavior (Arndt 61); literally, a turning back [ANA back, STREPHOO to turn], manner of life, living, behavior (Vine 105); conversation is used in the obsolete sense of behavior or conduct (Webster); you are (Williams); your conduct (Lenski 127).
[ 13 ]EN PHOBOO, in fear (Marshall 915; Lenski 127); literally, in fear (Vincent 1.650); reverence, respect, toward men the respect that is due . . . the wife to her husband (Arndt 864); the word "coupled" is inserted in italics, the more adequately to express the original, which is, literally, "your chaste behavior in fear" (Vine 240); reverence for one's husband (Thayer 656); and respectful (Williams).
[ 14 ]HOON ESTOO OUCH KOSMOS, of whom let it be not adorning (Marshall 915); your adornments must be not (Williams); whose let be not adornment (Lenski 129); adorning [from KOSMOS order, regular disposition, ornament, decoration, the world, universe] [see 1Ti 2:9 (Littrell); "Likewise, that the women should dress becomingly, adorning themselves in a respectable and sound-minded manner, ... through good works ..." of whom let it not be [your adornment]. The word KOSMOS adornment actually appears at the end of the Greek sentence.
[ 15 ]HO EXOOTHEN, the outward (Marshall 915); the outward; used with the article, adjectivally of outward adorning (Vine 822); of an external nature (Williams); the outward (Lenski 129).
[ 16 ]EMPLOKEES TRICHOON, of plaiting of hairs (Marshall 915); the hair was dyed, and secured with costly pins and with nets of gold thread. False hair and wigs were worn (Vincent 1.650); of plaiting of hairs (Marshall 915); [from PLEKOO to weave or plait], "plaiting," that is intertwining the hair in ornament (Vine 137); [fashionable] braiding of hair (Arndt 256); with braids of hair (Williams); of plaiting of hair (Lenski 129).
[ 17 ]KAI PERITHESEOOS CHROSIOON, and of putting round [on] of gold [ornaments] (Marshall 915); putting around or on [PERI around, TITHEEMI to put], of wearing jewels of gold (Vine 1217); or ornaments of gold (Williams); and of placing around gold things (Lenski 129).
[ 18 ]EE ENDUSEOOS HIMATIOON, or of clothing of [with] garments (Marshall 915); or of clothing of [with] garments adorning (Marshall 915); female extravagance in dress in the days of the empire reached an alarming pitch (Vincent 1.650); a putting on [akin to EPITITHEEMI to put on, upon], used of apparel (Vine 909); putting on clothing (Arndt 376); or changes of dress (Williams) or of putting on robes (Lenski 129).
[ 19 ]ALL' HO KRUPTOS TEES KARDIAS ANTHROOPOS, but the hidden of the heart man (Marshall 915); [akin to KRUPTOO to cover, conceal, keep secret], hidden, secret, hidden [man of the heart] (Vine 548, 549); but of an internal nature, the character concealed in the heart [literally, the hidden man of the heart] (Williams); but the hidden man of the heart (Lenski 129).
[ 20 ]EN TOO APHTHARTOO, in [?by] the incorruptible [adorning] (Marshall 915) not liable to corruption or decay, incorruptible . . . a meek and quiet spirit, metaphorically spoken of as incorruptible apparel (Vine 236); in the imperishable quality (Williams); in connection with the incorruption of (Lenski 129).
[ 21 ]TOU PRAEOS, of the meek (Marshall (915; Lenski 129); gentle, mild, meek, an adornment of the Christian profession (Vine 727); of a gentle (William).
[ 22 ]Some Greek texts have NEEPIOI babes, unsophisticated in mind and trustful in disposition.
[ 23 ]KAI HEESUCHIOU PNEUMATOS, and quiet spirit (Marshall 915; Lenski 129); [has much the same meaning as EEREMOS quiet, tranquil], associated with "meek," and is to characterize the spirit or disposition (Vine 914); quiet, tranquil; [spirit is used in the sense of] the disposition or influence which fills and governs the soul of any one; the efficient source of any power, affection, emotion, desire, etc. (Thayer 281, 523); a quiet (Williams).
[ 24 ]POLUTELES, of great value (Marshall 915; Williams; Lenski 915); used to describe costly raiment, 1 Timothy 2:9 (Vincent 1.650); primarily, the very end or limit [from POIUS much, TELOS revenue], with reference to price, of highest cost, very expensive, metaphorically, of a meek and quiet spirit, of great price (Vine 236, 237, 882).
[ 25 ]HO ESTIN ENOOPION TOU THEOU, which is before God (Marshall 915); in the sight of [God] (Vine 1042)in the sight of God (Williams; Lenski 129).
[ 26 ]HOUTOOS, so (Marshall 915); thus, in this way (Vine 710); this is the way (Williams); thus (Lenski 133).
[ 27 ]GAR POTE, for then (Marshall 915); once, formerly, ever, sometime (Vine 807); for at one time (Lenski 133); for of olden times (Williams).
[ 28 ]KAI HAI HAGIAI GUNAIKES, indeed the holy women (Marshall 915); the pius women (Williams); the holy wives (Lenski 133).
[ 29 ]HAI ELPIZOUSAI EIS THEON, hoping in God (Marshall 915); the meaning is really "in," "who hoped in God" (Vine 563); who set their hope on God (Williams); those hoping in God (Lenski 133).
[ 30 ]EKOSMOUN HEATAS, adorned themselves (Marshall 915); imperfect tense, were accustomed to adorn (Vincent 1.650); primarily to arrange, to put in order [English, cosmetic] . . . to adorn, to ornament . . . of one's person (Vine 24); kept adorning themselves (Lenski 133); used to adorn themselves (Williams).
[ 31 ]HUPOTASSOMENAI TOIS IDIOIS ANDRASIN, submitting themselves to the[ir] own husbands (Marshall 915); literally, being in subjection, or submitting yourselves; the same word which is used of the submission of servants [1Pe 2:18] (Vincent 1.650); subject yourselves, be subjected or subordinated, obey . . . toward the husband, in contrast to women, especially husbands (Arndt 66, 848); primarily a military term, to rank under [HUPO under, TASSOO to arrange], denotes, in the middle or passive voice, to subject oneself, to obey, be subject to, in general, men, adult males [in contrast to ANTHROOPOI, which generically denotes human beings, male or female] (Vine 570, 1099, 1100); they were submissive to their husbands (Williams); continuing in subjection to their own husbands (Lenski 133).
[ 32 ]HOOS SARRA HUPEEKOUSEN TOO ABRAAM, as Sarah obeyed Abraham (Marshall 915; Lenski 133); listened to, and so, submitted, obeyed . . . Abraham by Sarah (Vine 796); as Sarah, for example, obeyed Abraham (Williams).
[ 33 ]KURION AUTON KALOUSA, Lord him calling (Marshall 915); a title of respect addressed to a husband (Vine 688); and called him master (Williams); calling him lord (Lenski 133); sir [from KURIOS lord, master, sir], a term of respect (Littrell).
[ 34 ]HEES EGENEETEHETE TEKNA, of whom ye became children (Marshall 915); you have become true daughters [Greek children] of hers (Williams); whose children you became (Lenski 133).
[ 35 ]AGATHOPOIOUSAI, doing good (Marshall 915); do good [AGATHOS good, POIEOO to do], used of such activity in general (Vine 1220); if you practice doing right (Williams); continuing doing good (Lenski 133).
[ 36 ]MEE PHOBOUMENAI MEEDEMIAN PTOESIN, and not fearing no [any] terror (Marshall 915); the word means a scare, or nervous excitement (Vincent 1.651); the word means terror, not amazement (Vine 44); fear, be afraid . . . be struck with fear, be seized with alarm (Thayer 655); and cease from every fear (Williams); and fearing no terrifying (Lenski 133). dismay [from PTOESIS terrifying, intimidation, fear], a sense of being intimidated because of one's lot in life (Littrell).
[ 37 ]HOI ANDRES HOMOIOOS, husbands likewise (Marshall 915); in like manner [with wives] (Vincent 1.649); in like manner [from the adjective HOMOIOOS like, resembling, such as, the same as], likewise (Vine 674); the husbands likewise (Lenski 137); you married men, in the same way (Williams).
[ 38 ]SUNOIKOUNTES, dwelling together (Marshall 915); continuing to dwell (Lenski 137); [SUN with, OIKEOO to dwell], dwell with (Vine 337); must live with (Williams).
[ 39 ]KATA GNOOSIN, according to knowledge (Marshall 915; Lenski 137); with an intelligent recognition of the nature of the marriage relation (Vincent 1.651); primarily a seeking to know, an enquiry, investigation [akin to GINOOSKOO to be taking in knowledge, to come to know, recognize, understand, or to understand completely], denotes, in the NT, knowledge, especially of spiritual truth, used absolutely (Vine 631); in an intelligent consideration [literally, in accordance with knowledge] (Williams).
[ 40 ]TOO GUNAIKEIOO, APONEMONTES TIMEEN, the female, assigning honor (Marshall 916); literally, to portion out, and is appropriate to the husband as controlling what is to be meted out to the wife; [the woman is] not a noun, however, as would appear from the ordinary rendering, but an adjective, agreeing with SKEUEI vessel, as does also ASTHENESTERO weaker. Both are attributes of vessel; the female vessel as weaker (Vincent 1.651); you must show them deference (Williams); the wifely one, continuing to render honor (Lenski 137).
[ 41 ]HOOS ASTHENESTEROO SKEUEI, as with a weaker vessel (Marshall 915; Lenski 137); vessel, of the woman, as God's instrument, along with man, for his service in the family and in society (Vincent 1.651); literally, strengthless [comparative degree]; [the vessels are] a husband and wife . . . the view that the "vessel" [in 1Th 4:4] signifies the wife, and that the reference is to the sanctified maintenance of the married state, is supported by the facts that in 1 Peter 3:7 the same word TIMEE honor is used with regard to the wife (Vine 1216); the Greek word SKEUOS being used to denote the human body, 1 Thessalonians 4:4, it may here be translated body or person (Macknight 618); as the weaker sex (Williams).
[ 42 ]HOS KAI SUNKLEERONOMOIS, as indeed co-heirs (Marshall 916); joint-heirs, co-inheritors [SUN with, KLEERONOMOS one who obtains a lot or portion, especially of an inheritance], of husband and wife who are also united in Christ (Vine 542); fellow-heirs (Arndt 878); as also joint heirs (Lenski 137); as they share (Williams).
[ 43 ]CHARITOS ZOOEES, of [the] grace of life (Marshall 916); of the gracious gift that is life (Arndt 878); the gracious gift of life (Williams); of life's grace (Lenski 137).
[ 44 ]EIS TO MEE ENKOPTESTHAI TAS PROSEUCHAS HUMOON, for the not to be hindered the prayers of you (Marshall 916); your prayers not to be hindered; literally, to knock in; make an incision into; and hence, generally, to hinder or thwart (Vincent 1.652); of hindrances to the prayers of husband and wife, through low standards of marital conduct, [ENKOPTOO to cut out, repulse, in some manuscripts] (Vine 551); so that your prayers may not be hindered (Williams; Lenski 137).
[ 45 ]Compare Littrell.
[ 46 ]TO DE TELOS, now the end[,] (Marshall 916); an end, most frequently of the termination of something, is used with the article adverbially, meaning "finally" or "as to the end," that is, to the last detail (Vine 430); now finally (Lenski 142); finally (Williams).
[ 47 ]PANTES HOMOPHRONES, [be ye] all of one mind (Marshall 916); (unity of thought and feeling [from HOMOS one and the same, PHREEN the mind] (Vincent 1.652); [HOMOS the same, PHREEN the mind] (Vine 674); all same-minded (Lenski 142); you must all live in harmony (Williams).
[ 48 ]SUMPATHEIS, sympathetic (Marshall 916; Lenski 142); compassionate, sympathetic; interchange of fellow-feeling in joy or sorrow (Vincent 1.652); an adjective, denotes suffering with, "compassionate," (Vine 211); be sympathetic (Williams).
[ 49 ]PHILADELPHOI, loving [the] brothers (Marshall 916); [PHILEOO to love, ADELPHOS a brother or near kinsman], fond of one's brethren (Vine 147); fraternally friendly (Lenski 142); loving as brothers (Williams).
[ 50 ]Received Text has PHILOPHRONES; others, TAPEINOPHRONES humble minded (Vincent 1.652); [PHREEN the mind]; some manuscripts have the corresponding adjective PHILOPHROON courteous in 1 Peter 3:8; the most authentic manuscripts have TAPEINOPHROON humble-minded (Vine 242, 568); "courteous" in some versions is from to a textual variation.
[ 51 ] MEE APODIDONTES KAKON ANTI KAKOU, not giving back evil instead of evil (Marshall 916); [not] giving back, translated "rendering" of unrighteous acts, what is morally or ethically evil . . . qualities, emotions, passions, deeds, "evil for evil" (Vine 86, 380, 949, 950); not giving back a base thing for a base thing (Lenski 142); never returning evil for evil (Williams).
[ 52 ]EE LOIDORIAN ANTI LOIDORIAS, or reviling instead of reviling (Marshall 916); [akin to LOIDOREOO abuse, revile and LOIDOROS abusive, railing, reviling], abuse, railing (Vine 966); or reviling for reviling (Lenski 142); or abuse for abuse (Williams).
[ 53 ]TOUNANTION DE EULOGOUNTES, but on the contrary blessing (Marshall 916); a participle: Be not rendering evil, but be blessing (Vincent 1.652); on the contrary or contrariwise [blessing] [EU well, LOGOS a word] (Vine 229); but contrariwise, continuing to bless (Lenski 142); but blessing instead (Williams).
[ 54 ]HOTI EIS TOUTO EKLEETHEETE, aorist tense; because to this ye were called (Marshall 916); everywhere in the NT epistles only those are spoken of as called by God who have listened to his voice addressed to them in the gospel, hence those who have enlisted in the service of Christ (Thayer 321); because for this you were called (Lenski 142); because it was for this that you were called (Williams).
[ 55 ]HINA EULOGIAN KLEERONOMEESEETE, in order that blessing ye might inherit (Marshall 916); receive the [blessing] assigned . . . it became a formula denoting to partake of eternal salvation in the Messiah's kingdom; a blessing, benefit (Thayer 348, 349); to obtain the blessing of heirs [literally, inherit a blessing] (Williams); that you inherit a blessing (Lenski 142).
[ 56 ]HO GAR THELOON AGAPAN, for the [one] wishing life to love (Marshall 916); not the future tense of love, but the verb to will, with the infinitive: he that desires or means to love (Vincent 1.652, 653); he who wants to love life (Lenski 144); whoever wants to enjoy life (Williams).
[ 57 ]KAI IDEIN HEEMERAS AGATHAS, and to see days good (Marshall 916); [and] to see good days; the Hebrews and the Hellenists who imitate them measure the duration and length also of human life by the number of days; excelling in any respect, distinguished, good . . . of the feeling awakened by what is good, pleasant, agreeable, joyful, happy (Thayer 2, 279); and see delightful days (Williams); and to see good days (Lenski 144).
[ 58 ]PAUSATOO TEEN GLOOSSAN APO KAKOU, let him restrain the [his] tongue from evil (Marshall 916); stop, used in the active voice, in the sense of making to cease, restraining . . . of causing the tongue to refrain from evil (Vine 937); must keep his tongue from evil (Williams); let him stop the tongue from any base thing (Lenski 144).
[ 59 ]KAI CHEILEE TOU MEE LALEESAI DOLON, and [his] lips not to speak guile (Marshall 916); bait, snare, deceit . . . of the necessity that the speech of Christians should be guileless (Vine 515); and his lips from speaking deceit (Williams); and lips from uttering guile (Lenski 144).
[ 60 ]ENKLINATOO DE APO KAKOU, let him turn aside and from evil (Marshall 916); [EK out of, KLINOO to cause to bend or slope], the picture of the word is of one bending aside from his course at the approach of evil. Eschew is from the Norman ESCHEVER to shun or avoid; reappears in the English shy, and to be shy [as a horse] (Vincent 1.653); [EK from, KLINOO to turn, bend], used metaphorically of turning away from evil (Vine 370); moreover, let him incline away from baseness (Lenski 144); he must turn, too, away from evil (Williams).
[ 61 ]KAI POIESATOO AGATHON, and let him do good (Marshall 916); [AGATHOS, that which is good in character and beneficial, POIEOO to do], used in a general way, to do well (Vine 493, 49); upright, honorable (Thayer 2); and do right (Williams); and do good (Lenski 144).
[ 62 ]ZEETEESOO EIREENEEN, let him seek peace (Marshall 916; Lenski 144); seek or strive after, endeavor, desire (Vine 1012); seek after, seek for, aim at, strive after, to promote concord, to effect [peace] (Thayer 182, 272); he must seek peace (Williams).
[ 63 ]KAI DIOOXATOO AUTEEN, and pursue it (Marshall 916; Lenski 145); put to flight, pursue, persecute, is used metaphorically of seeking eagerly after peace (Vine 906); metaphorically, with accusative of thing, pursue, that is, seek after eagerly, earnestly endeavor to acquire (Thayer 153); and follow it (Williams).
[ 64 ]HOTI OPHTHALMOI KURIOU EPI DIKAIOS, the eyes of the Lord are on the righteous (Marshall 916); of God's power of vision (Vine 394); the eyes [of the Lord] are [fixed] upon the righteous, that is, the Lord looks after, provides for them (Thayer 470); because the eyes of the Lord are on upright men (Williams); because the Lord's eyes [are] upon righteous ones (Lenski 144).
[ 65 ]KAI OOTA AUTOU EIS DEEESIN AUTOON, and [the] ears of them open to the petition of them (Marshall 916); [His] ears to hear supplication (Thayer 465); and His ears listen to their pleading cries (Williams); and his ears for their begging (Lenski 144).
[ 66 ]PROSOOPON DE KURIOU EPI, but the face of the Lord is against (Marshall 916); of the look, that is, the face, which by its various movements affords an index of inward thoughts and feelings (Vine 397);. a Hebraistic phrase relating to the direction of the countenance, the look . . . the face of the Lord is [turned] upon one, that is, he looks upon and watches him (Thayer 551); but His face is against (Williams); but the Lord's countenance [is] against (Lenski 144).
[ 67 ]POIOUNTAS KAKA, ones doing evil things (Marshall 916); unrighteous acts, what is morally or ethically evil . . . qualities, emotions, passions, deeds (Vine 380); them that do wrong (Williams); such as are doing things base (Lenski 144).
[ 68 ]KAI TIS HO KAKOOSOON HUMAS, and who [is] the [one] harming you? (Marshall 916); to do evil to a person (Thayer 526); and who is he that will treat you basely? (Lenski 146); and who is it that will harm you? (Williams).
[ 69 ]Being persecuted without a cause was prophetic of the sufferings of Jesus.

[ 70 ]EAN TOU AGATHOU, of the good (Marshall 916); excelling in any respect, distinguished, good . . . of the feeling awakened by what is good, pleasant, agreeable, joyful, happy (Thayer 2); if you are enthusiastic (Williams); if you get to be zealots (Lenski 146).
[ 71 ]ALL' EI KAI PASCHOITE, but if indeed ye suffer (Marshall 916);the less vivid form of a future conditional sentence. In this sentence, the protasis only occurs [protasis is a conditional clause] (Nunn 243); suffer, of the followers of Christ (Vine 1103); the Greek construction [EI with the optative] expresses a possibility (Kelcy 72); even if you should suffer (Williams); nevertheless, if also you should be suffering (Lenski 147).
[ 72 ]DIA DIKAIOSUNEEN, because of righteousness (Marshall 916); [for the sake of] integrity, virtue, purity of life, uprightness, correctness in thinking, feeling and acting (Thayer 149); the specific virtue of Christians . . . the word becomes almost equivalent to Christianity (Arndt 197); for doing right (Williams); for righteousness' sake (Lenski 147).
[ 73 ]MAKARIOI, blessed [are ye] (Marshall 916); blessed, happy (Vine 524); you are happy (Williams); blessed [are you] (Lenski 147).
[ 74 ]TON DE PHOBON AUTOON MEE PHOBEETHEETE, the But fear of them fear ye not (Marshall 916); by metonymy, that which causes fear (Vine 414); fear, dread, terror, with a genitive of the object added, the fear which they inspire (Thayer 656); never be afraid of their threats (Williams); and do not fear their fear (Lenski 148).
[ 75 ]MEEDE TARACHTHEETE, nor be ye troubled (Marshall 916); used of Herod's trouble [Mt 2:3]; of the agitation of the pool of Bethesda [Joh 5:4; of Christ's troubled spirit [Joh 12:27] (Vincent 1.653); [akin to TARACHE an agitation, disturbance, trouble], of the minds of those in fear or perplexity (Vine 1169); and never be disturbed (Williams); neither be disturbed (Lenski 148).
[ 76 ]KURION DE TON CHRISTON HAGIASATE, but [as] Lord Christ sanctify (Marshall 916, 917); [Received Text has KURION DE TON THEON HAGIASATE]; the textual variation accounts for some versions having Christ and others Lord. The article with Christ shows that KURION Lord is to be taken predicatively. Render, therefore, sanctify Christ [the Christ] as Lord (Vincent 1.653); sanctify the acknowledgment of the Lordship of Christ (Vine 990); but be consecrated to Christ as Lord (Williams); but sanctify the Lord, Christ (Lenski 148).
[ 77 ]EN TAIS KARDIAIS HUMON, in the hearts of you (Marshall 927); the seat of moral and spiritual life . . . the desires (Vine 537); in your hearts (Lenski 148; Williams).
[ 78 ]HETOIMOI AEI PROS APOLOGIAN, ready always for the defence (Marshall 917); ready always for defence (Lenski 148); and always be ready to make your defense (Williams).
[ 79 ]PANTI TOO AITOUNTI HUMAS LOGON, to everyone asking you a word (Marshall 917); a word, etc., has also the significance of the inward thought itself, a reckoning, a regard, a reason, translated in 1 Peter 3:15 "a reason [concerning the hope that is in you]" (Vine 924); to anyone who asks a reason (Williams); to everyone asking you reason (Lenski 144).
[ 80 ]PERI TEES EN HUMIN ELPIDOS, concerning the in you hope (Marshall 917); in the Christian sense, joyful and confident expectation of eternal salvation (Thayer 205); a reason for the hope you have (Williams); concerning the hope in you (Lenski 148).
[ 81 ]ALLA META PRAUTEETOS, but with meekness (Marshall 917); gentleness, mildness, meekness (Thayer 535); a condition of heart, the opposite of self-assertiveness and self-interest; equanimity of spirit that is neither elated nor cast down, simply because it is not occupied with self at all. Peter enjoins meekness in setting forth the grounds of the Christian hope (Vine 728); but you must do it with gentleness (Williams); but with meekness (Lenski 148).
[ 82 ]KAI PHOBOU, and fear (Marshall 917; Lenski 148); reverence, respect [for authority, rank, dignity] (Thayer 656); and reverence (Williams).
[ 83 ]SUNEIDEESIN ECHONTES AGATHEEN, conscience having a good (Marshall 917); the position of the adjective shows that it is used predicatively: having a conscience good or unimpaired; [SUN together with, EIDENAI to know]. Its fundamental idea is knowing together with one's self. Hence, it denotes the consciousness which one has within himself of his own conduct as related to moral obligation; which consciousness exercises a judicial function, determining what is right or wrong, approving or condemning, urging to performance or abstinence (Vincent 1.654); free from guilt, consciousness of rectitude, of right conduct (Thayer 602); keeping a good conscience (Lenski 148); and keep your conscience clear (Williams).
[ 84 ]HINA EN HO KATALALEISTHE, in order that while ye are spoken against (Marshall 917); threatened abusively; to act despitefully (Vincent 1.656); [KATA against, LALEOO to speak], spoken against (Vine 86); so that those who bitterly abuse (Williams); in order that in what they continue to speak against you they may be put to shame who abuse (Lenski 148).
[ 85 ]HOI EPEEREAZONTES, [by] the [ones] abusing [you] (Marshall 917); so that those who bitterly abuse (Williams); who abuse (Lenski 148).
[ 86 ]HUMOON TEEN AGATHEEN EN CHRISTOO ANASTROPHEEN, of you the good in Christ conduct (Marshall 917); [ANA back, STREPHOO to turn], literally, a turning back, translated "manner of life," "living" (Vine 105); your excellent conduct as Christians (Williams); your good conduct in connection with Christ (Lenski 148).
[ 87 ]KATAISCHUNTHOSIN, may be shamed [by] (Marshall 917); [KATA down, intensive, AISCHOS shame], in the passive voice, ashamed (Vine 69); may be ashamed (Williams); may be put to shame (Lenski 148).
[ 88 ]KREITTON GAR, for [it is] better (Marshall 917; Williams); more excellent (Thayer 359); for better [it is] (Lenski 151).
[ 89 ]EI THELOI TO THELEEMA TOU THEOU, if wills the will of God (Marshall 917); if the will of God should so will, if it is the will of God, if it is God's will. (Vincent 1.656); if the will of God should plan it so (Williams); if the will of God should will (Lenski 152).
[ 90 ]AGATHOPOIOUNTAS . . . PASCHEIN, doing good . . . to suffer (Marshall 917); suffer, undergo evils, be afflicted (Thayer 494); doing well (Vine 1220); to suffer while doing good (Lenski 151, 152); to suffer for doing right (Williams).
[ 91 ]EE KAKOPOIOUNTAS, than doing evil (Marshall 917); evil doing (Vine 382); than doing evil (Marshall 917); than for doing wrong (Williams); than while doing ill (Lenski 152).
[ 92 ]HOTI KAI CRISTOS HAPAX PERI HAMARTIOON APETHANEN, because indeed Christ once concerning sins died (Marshall 917); when used with HAMARTIA the word "for" has the sense to take away, to atone for PERI HAMARTIAS (Arndt 644); HAPAX, once for all, of what is of perpetual validity, not requiring repetition (Vine 809); PERI is used of the design or purpose for removing something or taking it away: PERI HAMARTIAS, to destroy sin, Romans 8:3; DIDONAI HEAUTON PERI TOON HAMARTION, to expiate, atone for, sins, Galatians 1:4 . . . 1 Peter 3:18 (Thayer 501); for Christ Himself once for all, died for our sins (Williams); because Christ suffered for sins once (Lenski 154).
[ 93 ]DIKAIOS HUPER ADIKOON, a righteous man on behalf of unrighteousness ones (Marshall 917); the Greek without the article is more graphic: just for unjust (Vincent 1.656); in the NT, righteous, a state of being right, or right conduct, judged whether by the Divine standard, or according to human standards, of what is right, of Christ (Vine 613); the Innocent for the guilty [literally, the Righteous for the unrighteous] (Williams); One Righteous in place of unrighteous ones (Lenski 154).
[ 94 ]HINA HUMAS PROSAGAGEE TOO THEOO, in order that you he might bring to God, to bring you to God. (Marshall 917); bring into or unto (Vine 144); to bring us to God (Williams); in order that he may bring us to God (Lenski 154).
[ 95 ]THANATOOTHEIS MEN, being put to death on one hand (Marshall 917); put to death, of the Death of Christ (Vine 268); kill, hand over to be killed, especially of the death sentence and its execution (Arndt 351); put to death (Thayer 283); being put to death (Williams); [he] on the one hand, put to death (Lenski 154).
[ 96 ]SARKI, in [the] flesh (Marshall 917); the Greek omits the article: in flesh (Vincent 1.656); the body (Thayer 570); by means of flesh (Lenski 154); in physical form (Williams).
[ 97 ]ZOOOPOIEETHEIS DE PNEUMATI, quickened on the other in [the] spirit (Marshall 917); also without the article, in spirit; not as in the AV, by the Spirit, meaning the Holy Ghost, but referring to his spiritual, incorporeal life (Vincent 1.656); the resurrection body (Vine 1075); the spirit, that is, the vital principle by which the body is animated (Thayer 520); PNEUMA is that part of Christ which, in contrast to SARX, did not pass away in death, but survived as an individual entity after death (Arndt 675); on the other hand, vivified by means of spirit (Lenski 154); but made alive in the Spirit (Williams).
[ 98 ]Those who understand this to be the Holy Spirit point out that Christ was conceived by the Holy Spirit (Lu 1:35), was justified by the Spirit (1Ti 3:16) and offered Himself "through the eternal Spirit" (Heb 9:14).
[ 99 ]I see no inconsistency with the verses that say God raised Jesus from the dead (see Ac 26:8; 1Co 6:14; 2Co 4:14; Eph 1:20; compare Heb 11:19).
[ 100 ]EN HOO KAI POREUTHEIS EKEERUXEN, in which indeed going he proclaimed (Marshall 917); in which, in the spiritual form of life; in the disembodied spirit (Vincent 1.656); in which [EN HOI], that is, in which spirit--the spirit referred to in the preceding verse--the inner principle of life not subject to death (Woods 101); Elsner, on this passage gives examples from the Scriptures and from Demosthenes to prove that "he went and preached" may mean "he preached" (Macknight 620); EKEERUXEN. The word went, employed as usual of a personal act; and preached, in its ordinary NT sense of proclaiming the Gospel (Vincent 1.657); the probable reference is, not to glad tidings [which there is no real evidence that Noah preached, nor is there evidence that the spirits of antediluvian people are actually "in prison"], but to the act of Christ after His resurrection in proclaiming His victory to fallen angelic spirits (Vine 873); in which He went and preached (Williams); in connection with which also on having gone [to them] he made herald proclamation (Lenski 160).
[ 101 ]Littrell.
[ 102 ]A pleonasm is an instance of using more words than necessary to explain something. Dr. Symonds of Cambridge, in his essay on "Revising the English Translation of the Bible" (page 128), suggests that all verbs of posture or gesture, as to stand, to sit, to go, to walk, etc. in good Greek writers, have the signification of existence, to be. For example "And the men who traveled with him stood speechless, hearing the voice, but seeing no one" (Ac 9:7). It appears from Acts 26:14 that they all fell to the ground. "Stood speechless" implies they were speechless, nothing more. Marvin Vincent takes a contrary view.
[ 103 ]Macknight 35, 620.
[ 104 ]TOIS EN PHULAKEE PNEUMASIN, to the in prison spirits (Marshall 917); as in Hebrews 12:23, of disembodied spirits, though the word PSUCHAI souls is used elsewhere [Re 6:9; 20:4] (Vincent 1.657); unclean spirits, demons (Vine 1075); 1 Peter 3:19 belongs here [under breath (life-)spirit, soul, that which gives life to the body] if it refers to Jesus' preaching to the spirits of the dead in hell . . . whether it be when he descended into Hades, or when he returned to heaven; 1 Peter 3:19 belongs here [under evil spirits] if the PNEUMATI refer to demonic powers, evil spirits, fallen angels (Arndt 675, 676); Lenski takes the view that POTE HOTE once when does not limit the spirits to those who perished in the flood (Lenski (164); to the spirits in prison (Williams; Lenski 160); The spirits had lived and were disobedient during the time Noah was preaching and building the ark. They are now in Hades waiting judgment. The preaching took place by Noah, while they were living in disobedience (Littrell).
[ 105 ]Since the preaching of Christ during His personal ministry on earth was to "bring out prisoners from the dungeon" (Isa 42:7; compare Lu 4:18), "saying to those who are bound, `Go forth'" (Isa 49:9), the same might be said of Noah's pre-flood preaching.
[ 106 ]In order to match up the spirits in prison with the angels in pits of darkness, some denominational scholars have conjectured that the angels that sinned were the "sons of God" who married the "daughters of men" (see Ge 6:4). Others view this as ridiculous.
[ 107 ]"For if God did not spare angels when they sinned, but cast them into hell and committed them to pits of darkness, reserved for judgment" (2Pe 2:4). "And angels who did not keep their own domain, but abandoned their proper abode, He has kept in eternal bonds under darkness for the judgment of the great day" (Jude 6; compare Re 20:7).
[ 108 ]APEITHEESASIN POTE, to disobeying ones then (Marshall 917); refused belief and obedience (Thayer 55); POTE denotes once upon a time, formerly, sometime (Vine 809); once, that is, at some time or other, formerly, aforetime, of the past (Thayer 533); who had once been disobedient (Williams); such as were disobedient (Lenski 161).
[ 109 ]HOTE APEXEDEXETO HEE TOU GHEOU MAKROTHUMIA, when waited the of God longsuffering (Marshall 917); patience, forbearance, long-suffering waited or expected eagerly (Vine 1205); while God's patience was awaiting (Williams); when the longsuffering of God kept waiting (Lenski 161).
[ 110 ]EN HEEMERAIS NOOE, in [the] days of Noe (Marshall 917); in the days of Noah; Noah, the second father of the human race (Thayer 431); in Noah's days (Lenski 161); in the days when Noah (Williams).
[ 111 ]KATASKEUAZOMENEES KIBOOTOU, being prepared an ark (Marshall 917); being prepared, made ready [KATA used intensively, SKEUE equipment] (Thayer 877); was preparing an ark (Williams); while the ark was being constructed (Lenski 161); Greek text does not have the article for the.
[ 112 ]In the Bible, TEVAH is always used of a vessel that floats. Other than the ark of Noah, the word is used of the bulrush basket containing baby Moses.
[ 113 ]EIS HEEN, in which (Marshall 917; Lenski 161; Williams).
[ 114 ]OLIGOI, a few (Marshall 917); [a] few (Arndt 563); a few people (Williams); few (Lenski 161).
[ 115 ]TOUT' ESTIN OKTOO PSUCHAI, this is eight souls (Marshall 917); eight, to be exact (Williams); that is, eight souls (Lenski 161).
[ 116 ]Noah's sons Shem, Ham and Japeth were not born until he was 500 years of age (Ge 5:32). The flood came when he was 600 (Ge 7:11). Noah had sixteen grandchildren. Those by Shem were Elam, Asshur, Arphaxad, Lud, and Aram (Ge 10:22). Those through Japheth were Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras (Ge 10:1, 2). Four more were sons of Ham: Cush, Mizraim, Put, and Canaan (Ge 10:6).
[ 117 ]DIESOOTHEESAN, were quite saved (Marshall 917); brought safely [DIA [SOZOO to save] (Vine 993); brought safely through, also saved, rescued, without special feeling for the meaning of DIA; 1 Peter 3:20 has a phrase with EIS in connection with DIESOOTHEESAN (Arndt 189); were brought safely (Williams; Lenski 161).
[ 118 ]DI', through (Marshall 917); DIA, through. Some take this as instrumental, by means of water; others as local, by passing through the water, or being brought safely through the water into the ark (Vincent 1.657); through, be brought safely through the water (Arndt 179); with the genitive through, of place, properly after verbs denoting an extension, or a motion, or an act, that occurs through any place (Thayer 132); DIA simply states the means by which the eight were brought through with complete safety. It is not local with reference to the ark moving "through the water." Water was the means for destroying all the rest; that same water was the means for floating the ark with its eight souls (Lenski 169); through [DIA by] means of the water (Woods 902); through [the flood] (Vine 993); through (Williams).
[ 119 ]HUDATOS, water (Marshall 917); the water (Williams); water, literally, as an element, of the waters of the Deluge (Arndt 832); by means of water (Lenski 161).
[ 120 ]HO KAI ANTITUPON, which also figure (Marshall 917); the relative HO being in the neuter gender, its antecedent cannot be KIBOOTOS the ark, which is feminine, but HUDATOS water, which is neuter. . . . The word TUPOS type denotes a thing that is so formed as to convey an exact image of itself, by impression on another substance capable of receiving the impression. In scripture it signifies a pattern according to which a thing is made. Thus the visionary tabernacle shown to Moses in the mount is called TUPOS type or pattern because he was to make the material tabernacle exactly like it [Heb 8:5]. In scripture, likewise, TUPOS a type signifies an example of moral conduct to be followed or avoided [1Co 10:6-11]. The word ANTITUPOS antitype denotes the thing formed in imitation of the type or pattern. Thus, Hebrews 9:24, the Mosaic tabernacles are called ANTITUPA antitypes, or likenesses of the true tabernacle or habitation of the Deity, because they were formed according to the TUPON pattern showed to Moses, which was considered as the true tabernacle (Macknight 620); "whereunto" is a mistake for the more difficult "which" (Ellicott 4.422); following a rejected reading HO to which; so that the literal rendering would be the antitype to which. Read HO ANTITUPON which, the antitype or as an antitype; that is, which water, being the antitype of that water of the flood, doth now save you, even baptism. ANTITUPON figure, or antitype, is from ANTI over against and TUPOS a blow. Hence, originally, repelling a blow: a blow against a blow. So of an echo or of the reflection of light; then a correspondence, as of a stamp to the die, as here (Vincent 1.657); a corresponding type, 1 Peter 3:21, said of baptism; the circumstances of the flood, the ark and its occupants, formed a type, and baptism forms a corresponding type [not an antitype] each setting forth the spiritual realities of the death, burial, and resurrection of believers in their identification with Christ. It is not a case of type and antitype, but of two types that in Genesis, the type, and baptism, the corresponding type (Vine 425, 426); corresponding to something that has gone before. The ANTITUPOS is usually regarded as secondary to the TUPOS [compare the oracular saying in Diodorus Siculus 9.36, 3 [1 BC] TUPOS ANTITUPOS and Ex 25:40], but since TUPOS can men both "original" and "copy" . . . [that is, HUDOR] HUMAS ANTITUPOS NUN SOOZEI BAPTISMA means baptism, which is a fulfillment [of the type] now saves you, that is, the saving of Noah from the flood is a TUPOS, or "foreshadowing" [hardly the "original" in the full Platonic sense 2 below], and baptism corresponds to it (Arndt 76); a thing resembling another, its counterpart; something in the Messianic times which answers to the type [see TUPOS, 4 gamma] prefiguring it in the OT . . . as baptism corresponds to the deluge (Thayer 51); in a doctrinal sense, a type, that is, a person or thing prefiguring a future [Messianic] person or thing; in this sense Adam is called TUPOS TOU MELLONTOS, namely ADAM [see Ro 5:14], that is of Jesus Christ, each of the two having exercised a pre-eminent influence upon the human race [the former destructive, the latter saving] (Thayer 632); the baptism which is here declared to save is water baptism--baptism being the antetype (sic) of the water of deliverance in the flood (Woods 103); which corresponds to this figure [Greek, antitype] (Williams); which as a type (Lenski 170).
[ 121 ]HUMAS NUN SOOZEI BAPTISMA, us now saves [even] baptism (Marshall 917); it should be you, not "us" . . . which baptism also, in antitype, doth now save you, or else, which [water] also, in antitype, now saveth you--baptism (Ellicott 4.422); of Christian baptism; this, according to the view of the apostles, is a rite of sacred immersion, commanded by Christ, by which men confessing their sins and professing their faith in Christ are born again by the Holy Spirit unto a new life, coming into the fellowship of Christ and the church [1Co 12:13], and are made partakers of eternal salvation; saved in the technical biblical sense;--negatively, delivers from the penalties of the Messianic judgment . . . positively, makes one a partaker of the salvation by Christ (Thayer 95, 610); the person baptized is, as it were, buried with Christ Colossians 2:12; 1 Peter 3:21 (Arndt 132); saves you now as baptism; the experience of those who were in the ark at the time of the Flood was a figure or type of the facts of spiritual death, burial and resurrection, Christian baptism being an ANTITUPON, "a corresponding type," a "like figure," 1 Peter 3:21 (Vine 89); the fact that the second water, that of baptism, saves in a far higher way is apparent and is also stated by Peter at length. This excludes the idea that ANTITUPON means that the water of the flood is a type-prophecy of baptism . . . The sacrament "saves" because it is not a mere outward rite but "an offer of a good conscience toward God through Jesus Christ's resurrection" (Lenski 170, 172); baptism now saves you too (Williams).
[ 122 ]In 1 John 1:7, KATHARIZEI, cleanses, in this verse, is present tense, continues to cleanse.
[ 123 ]OU SARKOS APOTHESIS RHUPOU, not of [the] flesh a putting away of [the] filth (Marshall 917); denotes dirt, filth (Vine 428); a putting off or away [akin to APOTITHEEMI, to put off], used metaphorically in 1 Peter 3:21, of the "putting away" of the filth of the flesh (Vine 910); I do not mean the mere removal of physical stains (Williams); not a putting away of filth of flesh (Lenski 170).
[ 124 ]ALLA SUNEIDESEOOS AGATHEES EPEROOTEEMA EIS THEON, but conscience of a good an answer (Marshall 917); not as in the KJV, an "answer." It was used by the Greeks in a legal sense, as a demand or appeal. Baptism is therefore the ground of an appeal by a good conscience against wrong doing; [SUN with, OIDA to know], literally, a knowing with, that is, a co-knowledge [with oneself], the witness borne to one's conduct by conscience, that faculty by which we apprehend the will of God, as that which is designed to govern our lives (Vine 53, 1220); as the terms of inquiry and demand often include the idea of desire, the word thus gets the signification of earnest seeking, that is, a craving, an intense desire . . . to long for something, 2 Samuel 11:7--[but surely the phrase here means simply to ask in reference to, ask about]. If this use of the word i conceded, it affords us the easiest and most congruous explanation of that vexed passage 1 Peter 3:21: "which [baptism] now saves us [you] not because in receiving it we [ye] have put away the filth of the flesh, but because we [ye] have earnestly sought a conscience reconciled to God" (Thayer 230); but an offer of a good conscience toward God; request, appeal . . . an appeal to God for a clear conscience . . . but compare also a pledge . . . to God proceeding from a clear conscience, moral consciousness (Arndt 285, 786); Schlatter has the correct interpretation: this EPEROOTEEMA is God's ANTRAG of ANBIETUNG. "God puts the question before man as to whether he wants to have a good conscience and receives the answer in the believing `yes' of the one accepting baptism" (Lenski 170, 172); but the craving for a clear conscience toward God (Williams).
[ 125 ]Some view a good conscience merely as one that does not bother. This is not always the case. While Paul was persecuting Christians he had a "good conscience" because he thought he was doing God's will (Ac 23:1).
[ 126 ]DI' ANASTASEOOS 'IESOU CHRISTOU, through [the] resurrection of Jesus Christ (Marshall 918); of the resurrection from the dead, of Christ (Vine 962); through Jesus Christ's resurrection; DIA=means or mediation (Lenski 170, 173); through the resurrection of Jesus Christ (Williams).
[ 127 ]Falwell 2612.
[ 128 ]Lenski 174.
[ 129 ]Clarke6.862.
[ 130 ]POREUTHEIS EIS OURANON, having gone into heaven (Marshall 918; Lenski 170); He is "on the right hand of God," having gone into Heaven (Vine 538); who has gone to heaven (Williams).
[ 131 ]HOOS ESTIN EN DEXIA THEOU, who is at [the] right [hand] of God (Marshall 918); metaphorically of power or authority (Vine 968); and is now at God's right hand (Williams); he who is at God's right [hand] (Lenski 170).
[ 132 ]ANGELOON, angels (Marshall 918; Lenski 170); [from ANGELLOO to deliver a message], most frequently of an order of created beings, superior to man (Vine 47); with angels (Williams).
[ 133 ]KAI EXOUSIOON, and authorities (Marshall 918; Lenski 170); spiritual potentates (Vine 81); the bearers of authority . . . of rulers and functionaries of the spirit world (Arndt 278); the leading and more powerful among created beings superior to man, spiritual potentates; used in the plural of a certain class of angels (Thayer 225); heavenly authorities (Williams).
[ 134 ]KAI DUNAMEOON, and powers (Marshall 918; Williams; Lenski 170); strength, ability, power . . . angels, as excelling in power, are called DUNAMEIS (Thayer 159); power as a personal supernatural spirit or angel (Arndt 208).
[ 135 ]HUPOTAGENTOON AUTOO, being subjected to him (Marshall 918); primarily a military term, [have been] ranked under [HUPO under, TASSOO to arrange], in subjection (Vine 1100); made subject to Him (Williams); having been placed in subjection to him (Lenski 170).

Copyright ©2003, Charles Hess, Ridgefield, Washington, U.S.A.
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The basic text, and all quotations not designated otherwise, are from the New King James Version, copyrighted ©1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. All rights reserved. Used by permission. Bracketed alternatives are drawn from various sources such as the ASV, Darby, KJV and RSV. Greek transliteration follows the BibleSoft method.

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