Let me tell you what no one should or would wish to dispute: “The ancient world drank and often got drunk on intoxicating drinks (as they do to this day).” That, I judge, is beyond dispute and it is spoken about in the OT in particular.

Let me tell you what I think is untrue and what no one should claim without plain proof: “The ancient world drank nothing but intoxicating wine and drinks.”

Let me tell you something else I think is manifestly untrue: “The ancients could not keep grape-juice from fermenting.” They not only could; they did it all the time.

Moving on; it’s alleged that only those biased in favour of a teetotal position would question the claim that Jesus made intoxicating wine in John 2. It’s alleged that it’s beyond debate that he did indeed make something like 120 to 180 gallons of intoxicating wine at the wedding feast in Cana.

The miracle of “water to wine” has numerous rich theological truths embedded in it. One of them is this: Throughout the book of John we see Jesus exceeding all that was true about Israel’s ancient worthies; the Baptist, Moses, Jacob, Abraham and whoever. The beginning of Moses’ series of miracles was water to blood (Exodus 7:15-21) as he made himself known as Israel’s deliverer and Jesus’ opening miracle as he made himself known as Israel’s saviour was water to wine and so forth (John 2:11).

The theological truths embedded in this miracle in John 2:1-10 do not depend on whether the wine was intoxicating or non-intoxicating. Jesus turned water into oinos. This we know because the text explicitly says so.

Peter Cotterell thinks the only reason one would dispute that it was intoxicating wine is if he was biased against the booze industry due to a piety that has lost its way. Even though I dispute that claim it might still be true; but what is it in John 2:1-10 that makes it crystal clear and indisputable that the wine was intoxicating wine?

Well, the word “wine”—for starters. The word wine means intoxicating grape-juice. But you don’t need to hate the booze industry to know that today the word “wine” might mean “intoxicating wine” and nothing else but it didn’t always. Click here.

Yes, but the word oinos meant intoxicating wine and nothing other than intoxicating wine, Watson, Ewing and others say. More than three centuries before Jesus Aristotle said the word “oinos” is ambiguous. He goes on to say that one of the “kinds” of wine didn’t intoxicate like ordinary wine so that it isn’t wine in spite of its name.

Many scholars have held and hold that the Hebrew word asis is non-fermented grape-juice and yet it is rendered by oinos in places like Joel 1:5 and Amos 9:11. Eugene Carpenter (NIDOTTE 3.470), for example, thinks Joel 1:5 and 3:18 refer to “juice” (of the grape) though it’s rendered “new wine” (NIV) and “sweet wine” (NRSV). The Greek OT (LXX) has “glukasmon” in 3:18, rendered “sweet wine”. [On the basis of Isaiah 49:26 Carpenter thinks asis could also be intoxicating. There the LXX has “onion neon”—new wine.]

I truly think that the generic nature of the words yayin, oinos and vinum has been downplayed in part because it is true that intoxicating wine and its consumption was universal. Since the above words would have been so often used of what was the preferred drink of the nations the words became the standard description of the fermented state of the grape juice. It appears that the only people who would bother to differentiate the various states of the grape juice (fermented, non-fermented, boiled or whatever) would be people like Pliny, Aristotle, Columella, Athenaeus, Cato who had an interest in agriculture for various reasons. In addition there’d be the Rabbis who would be interested in fermented and non-fermented because of tithing questions and such. The rank and file would only be interested in what was sold by the retailers so if they used the above words they would mean them in the popular usage.

This means that all talk such as: “Look, oinos is intoxicating wine and that’s the end of it” is out of order.
What is there in John 2:1-10 that proves Jesus made “a vast amount” (See semann, TDNT 5.165) of intoxicating wine?
It isn’t that people didn’t drink non-intoxicating wine—they did (as tens of thousands do this very day).
It isn’t that the English word wine is used—the word didn’t always mean “intoxicating” wine.
It isn’t that the word oinos is used—the word is ambiguous.

What is it then? Peter Cotterell (NIDOTTE 1.139) points us particularly to 2:10 where the emcee of the feast remarks on the unusual. Here’s what he said (following the NIV): “Everyone brings out the choice wine first and then the cheaper wine after the guests have had too much to drink; but you have saved the best till now.” The NRSV gives, “after the guests have become drunk.” The NRSV’s blunter rendering agrees with the more euphemistic “too much to drink”.

The rest of the versions (NEB, REB, KJV, JB ESV, Moffatt, JB Phillips, TEV, ASV, NAS, Knox, Douay and even the RSV) give us something like: “have drunk freely” or “have well drunk”. The NAS offers, “have become drunk” in the footnote. The Douay is based on the Latin Vulgate of course and translates “inebriati” as “have well drunk.” [The word methusko warrants discussion.]

I’m going to take it that the master of ceremonies at the feast said to the host. “Everyone brings out the best wine first and when the guests have become intoxicated they bring out the inferior stuff.” I’m going to take it that he stating the general rule.

The general rule then is the general rule today! If we invite guests to eat and drink with us we lay out the best dishes and cutlery and the best food and drink we have. It’s only when we have to that we bring out the lesser quality stuff. It’s a matter of courtesy and other things and there’s nothing strange about it.

But none of that settles anything. The idea that the “choice” wine is better than the “inferior” because of alcoholic content is entirely out of touch with the text. The question is the quality of the grapes, the soil in which it was grown, the care in making it, the weather during the growing season, the nature of the vine—and more related issues. To imply that something in the alcoholic content of wine is what makes it better or worse is nonsense—unless you’re assessing “the kick” that is in it. I’ve drunk lots of fermented and non-fermented grape juice and there’s no persuading me that the alcohol level or lack of it is what makes the juice taste better or worse. I don’t know if any wine drinker today would claim that it’s the ethanol that “makes it” for them (ignoring the buzz effect). I don't mean to say the ethanol doesn't affect the tasteit does; but there are so many other elements that "make" the sensory qualities of fermented wine. Wine-making industries compete with each other and wine-tasting “experts” tell us they know which is the better wine and it has nothing to do with varying degrees of alcohol. It takes more than upping the ethanol content to make a “good” and good-tasting wine.

The idea that the emcee at that Cana wedding would know from his first drink if the wine he was now drinking had ethanol in it is sheer guessing. No, what he seems certain of is this: “It’s usual for the hosts to bring out their best wine first and leave the inferior to the last because (following the NIV and NRSV) by that the time the guests are drunk and can’t really tell the difference.” We’re not to assume he is saying, “by that time the guests are drunk and can’t tell whether they’re drinking intoxicating wine or not.” He says by that time they’re drunk and don’t know the difference between good wine and inferior wine.

He states the rule about host courtesy and wisdom. He isn’t saying about his company at this wedding; he isn’t saying that this company is already drunk (though who knows?).

But what has any of that to do with what Jesus did in producing up to 180 gallons of wine? If the only “wine” drunk by 1st century people was alcoholic we’d be surer that Jesus made alcoholic wine. If it was common to drink sweet, new wine that wasn’t fermented (despite the rule) we’d be less sure that he made alcoholic wine. If everyone drank nothing but alcoholic wine and this company had scoffed the lot and were heading for drunkenness maybe Jesus not only reversed the procedure but reversed the kind of wine they drank. [For something on the parables of the patch and the wineskins in Matthew 9:15-17. Click here.]

If you choose to, write me if you think I’m right off the wall here.

by Dave Miller, Ph.D. ... Will There be an Armageddon?


Will There be an Armageddon?

by  Dave Miller, Ph.D.

Many religionists insist that world history will culminate in a cataclysmic global holocaust known as “Armageddon,” followed by the “Millennium”—a 1000-year reign of Christ on Earth. They say that current events in the Middle East are arranging themselves in such a fashion that the Second Coming of Christ is imminent. Of course, this claim has been made repeatedly for many, many years—with no fulfillment forthcoming.
What does the Bible actually say about “Armageddon”? The term “armageddon” occurs only once in the New Testament: Revelation 16:16. In keeping with the literary genre of the book (i.e., apocalyptic), the term is used with figurative connotations. Revelation is literally packed with allusions to the Old Testament. In fact, “no book in the New Testament is so thoroughly steeped in the thought and imagery of the Hebrew Scriptures” (Swete, 1911, p. liii). But the writer does not use direct quotes from the Old Testament. Rather, he adapted, modified, and combined ideas from the Old Testament in order to apply them to the setting to which he addressed himself. He drew freely from Old Testament imagery, but placed a New Testament spin on them with a first century application.
For those who would be familiar with the Old Testament (as Asia Minor Christians would have been), the Holy Spirit capitalized on the meaning that this location possessed. In Hebrew, the term “Harmageddon” means “mountain (or hill) of Megiddo.” Was there a hill of Megiddo? Yes. In fact, Jews and students of Hebrew history were only too familiar with this prominent battlefield and vicinity. Many bloody encounters stained the soil of this region—scenes of military disaster. It was here that Deborah and Barak defeated the Canaanites (Judges 5:19). Gideon was victorious over the Midianites in this region (Judges 7). These positive accomplishments were etched into the Israelite consciousness. But there were other images evoked by Megiddo, for it also served as a place where national tragedy had occurred. Ahaziah died there after being pierced by Jehu’s arrow (2 Kings 9:27). And good King Josiah perished tragically at the hands of Pharaoh Necho (2 Kings 23:29). This last incident was especially poignant to the minds of the Jewish people, who mourned the loss of this great king, enshrining the event in the collective consciousness as an instance of national grief (Zechariah 12:11).
With this long historical background, Megiddo came to occupy a place in the minds of believers similar to places which immediately bring to the American mind definite and strong impressions: the Alamo, Pearl Harbor, etc. This significance was then utilized by the Holy Spirit to convey to struggling, persecuted Christians of Asia Minor near the end of the first century the sure outcome of the conflict then being waged between the forces of evil (Satan and imperial Rome) and the forces of righteousness (God, Christ, and faithful saints who were enduring persecution). These Christians were certainly in no need of assurance that some future global holocaust would occur which Christ would bring to an end 2,000 years removed from their suffering! These Christians were in dire need of assurance that Christ would come to their aid soon (see “shortly”—Revelation 1:1; 22:6). They needed encouragement to hang on, and to remain steadfast in the face of inhuman mistreatment. The symbol of Megiddo fitly symbolized the impending overthrow of an enemy empire, and engendered much needed assurance. Christians were given the solace that soon the outcome of the battle would be realized. The enemies of God and His People would be punished, while suffering saints would be comforted. Thus “armageddon” is purely symbolic, and in no way relates to dispensational dreams of a future world war. There will be no “Armageddon.”


Swete, Henry (1911), Commentary on Revelation (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel, 1977 reprint).

From Mark Copeland... Paul's Ministry At Ephesus (Acts 19:1-41)

                          "THE BOOK OF ACTS"

                 Paul's Ministry At Ephesus (19:1-41)


1. Paul's third missionary journey began in Antioch of Syria...
   a. Where he started all three journeys - Ac 13:1-3; 15:36-41
   b. As with his second journey, it began by visiting churches 
      established on his first missionary journey - Ac 15:41; 16:1-5; 

2. The first major stop on Paul's third journey with the city of 
   a. Where he had briefly stopped on his second journey - Ac 18:19-20
   b. Where he had promised to return, God willing - Ac 18:21  

[Paul's stay at Ephesus on his third journey proved to the longest of
any recorded by Luke.  It lasted about three years (52-55 A.D., ESV
Study Bible), and was a very productive ministry by Paul...]


      1. Who needed to be baptized again (see previous lesson) - Ac 19:1-5
      2. Who received the Spirit, spoke in tongues and prophesied, after
         Paul laid his hands on them - Ac 19:6-7

      1. As was Paul's custom when allowed - Ac 17:2; 18:4
      2. This Paul did at Ephesus for three months - Ac 19:8
      3. This was longer than at other places - cf. Ac 13:42-45; 14:1-2;
         17:1-10,11-15; 18:4-6

      1. As happened elsewhere, Paul was forced to leave the synagogue 
         - Ac 19:9; cf. Ac 18:4-6
      2. He then taught in the school of Tyrannus for two years - Ac 19:9-10; cf. Ac 18:7
      3. During this time, all in Asia (western Turkey) heard the word of
         the Lord - Ac 19:10
      4. Probably through the aid of men like Epaphras - Col 1:7; 4:12-13

      1. Involving handkerchiefs or aprons from his body to heal others
         - Ac 19:11-12
      2. Prompting Jewish exorcists to try and use Jesus' and Paul's
         names - Ac 19:13-16
      3. The evident contrast between true and false miracle workers led
         many to believe - Ac 19:17
      4. Those who believed were willing to confess and repent at great
         cost - Ac 19:18-19
      5. Thus the word of the Lord grew mightily and prevailed - Ac 19:20

      1. Toward the end of his ministry, as Paul began making plans to 
         leave - Ac 19:21-22
         a. Purposing in the Spirit to pass through Macedonia and Achaia
            - cf. Ac 20:1-5
         b. Then returning to Jerusalem, followed by a trip to Rome - cf.
            Ac 20:5-21:17; 27:1-28:16
         c. In preparation for his departure, he sent Timothy and Erastus
            to Macedonia - Ac 19:22
      2. The Diana incident - Ac 19:23-41
         a. A great commotion, brought on by Demetrius and other 
            silversmiths - Ac 19:23-28
         b. In which a mob takes two of Paul's companions, Gaius and
            Aristarchus - Ac 19:29
         c. Paul was restrained by officials from Asia from addressing 
            the mob - Ac 19:30-31
         d. The Jews put forth Alexander, which further enraged the mob
            - Ac 19:32-34
         e. The riot was barely controlled by the city clerk, who 
            exonerated Paul's companions - Ac 19:35-41

[Paul soon left Ephesus and went on to Macedonia as planned (Ac 20:1). 
Luke's account of Paul's ministry in Ephesus records great success (Ac
19:10,20).  But we can glean even more about his time in Ephesus from
other New Testament sources...]


      1. Paul made a short visit to Corinth, his second - cf. 2Co 12:14;
      2. His first visit was during the second journey - Ac 18:1
      3. His third visit was later on the third journey - Ac 20:1-3
      4. The book of Acts is silent about this second visit, but most
         place it sometime during his stay at Ephesus

      1. A letter to the Corinthians (now lost), only alluded to - 1Co 5:9
      2. Another letter what we now know as First Corinthians - 1Co 16:5-8,19

      1. Timothy
         a. Sent from Ephesus to Macedonia - Ac 19:22
         b. Who would arrive after First Corinthians - 1Co 4:17; 16:10-11
      2. Titus and "a brother whose praise is in the gospel throughout 
         all the churches" (Luke?)
         a. To encourage the Corinthians concerning the collection - 2Co 8:6,16-19
         b. To bring Paul word as to how the Corinthians received the
            first letter? - 2Co 12:17-18
         c. Whose delayed return would later give Paul concern - 2Co 2:12-13
         d. But who would eventually bring Paul good news - 2Co 7:5-7,

      1. Sosthenes was there, joining Paul in writing to the Corinthians
         - 1Co 1:1
      2. Paul had been visited by Stephanas, Fortunatus, and Achaicus
         - 1Co 16:17
      3. Aquila and Priscilla hosted the church in their house - 1Co 16:19
      4. Paul's sufferings while at Ephesus - Ac 20:17-19; 1Co 15:30-32;
         2Co 1:8-11
      5. Paul's preaching while at Ephesus - Ac 20:21-21,25-27,31
      6. Paul's manual labor while at Ephesus - Ac 20:33-35; 1Co 4:11,12


1. Harmonizing Luke's account with what is written elsewhere, we learn 
   a. The gospel spread throughout Asia (SW Turkey) - Ac 19:10,20
   b. Paul's three years in Ephesus was very productive - Ac 20:17-21,31
   c. His influence spread even further through epistles and emissaries

2. Reflecting on Paul's ministry in Ephesus, we glean many things,
   a. The importance of scriptural baptism - Ac 19:1-7
   b. The power of the gospel to transform lives - Ac 19:18-20
   c. The resistance of many who put money and tradition above the will
      of God - Ac 19:23-34

May Paul's example of faithful ministry in Ephesus encourage and inspire
us to be faithful in our own service to the Lord...!

Executable Outlines, Copyright © Mark A. Copeland, 2013

From Gary... Bible Reading July 14

Bible Reading  

July 14

The World English Bible

July 14
1 Chronicles 4-6

1Ch 4:1 The sons of Judah: Perez, Hezron, and Carmi, and Hur, and Shobal.
1Ch 4:2 Reaiah the son of Shobal became the father of Jahath; and Jahath became the father of Ahumai and Lahad. These are the families of the Zorathites.
1Ch 4:3 These were the sons of the father of Etam: Jezreel, and Ishma, and Idbash; and the name of their sister was Hazzelelponi;
1Ch 4:4 and Penuel the father of Gedor, and Ezer the father of Hushah. These are the sons of Hur, the firstborn of Ephrathah, the father of Bethlehem.
1Ch 4:5 Ashhur the father of Tekoa had two wives, Helah and Naarah.
1Ch 4:6 Naarah bore him Ahuzzam, and Hepher, and Temeni, and Haahashtari. These were the sons of Naarah.
1Ch 4:7 The sons of Helah were Zereth, Izhar, and Ethnan.
1Ch 4:8 Hakkoz became the father of Anub, and Zobebah, and the families of Aharhel the son of Harum.
1Ch 4:9 Jabez was more honorable than his brothers: and his mother named him Jabez, saying, Because I bore him with sorrow.
1Ch 4:10 Jabez called on the God of Israel, saying, Oh that you would bless me indeed, and enlarge my border, and that your hand might be with me, and that you would keep me from evil, that it not be to my sorrow! God granted him that which he requested.
1Ch 4:11 Chelub the brother of Shuhah became the father of Mehir, who was the father of Eshton.
1Ch 4:12 Eshton became the father of Beth Rapha, and Paseah, and Tehinnah the father of Ir Nahash. These are the men of Recah.
1Ch 4:13 The sons of Kenaz: Othniel, and Seraiah. The sons of Othniel: Hathath.
1Ch 4:14 Meonothai became the father of Ophrah: and Seraiah became the father of Joab the father of Ge Harashim; for they were craftsmen.
1Ch 4:15 The sons of Caleb the son of Jephunneh: Iru, Elah, and Naam; and the sons of Elah; and Kenaz.
1Ch 4:16 The sons of Jehallelel: Ziph, and Ziphah, Tiria, and Asarel.
1Ch 4:17 The sons of Ezrah: Jether, and Mered, and Epher, and Jalon; and she bore Miriam, and Shammai, and Ishbah the father of Eshtemoa.
1Ch 4:18 His wife the Jewess bore Jered the father of Gedor, and Heber the father of Soco, and Jekuthiel the father of Zanoah. These are the sons of Bithiah the daughter of Pharaoh, whom Mered took.
1Ch 4:19 The sons of the wife of Hodiah, the sister of Naham, were the father of Keilah the Garmite, and Eshtemoa the Maacathite.
1Ch 4:20 The sons of Shimon: Amnon, and Rinnah, Ben Hanan, and Tilon. The sons of Ishi: Zoheth, and Ben Zoheth.
1Ch 4:21 The sons of Shelah the son of Judah: Er the father of Lecah, and Laadah the father of Mareshah, and the families of the house of those who worked fine linen, of the house of Ashbea;
1Ch 4:22 and Jokim, and the men of Cozeba, and Joash, and Saraph, who had dominion in Moab, and Jashubilehem. The records are ancient.
1Ch 4:23 These were the potters, and the inhabitants of Netaim and Gederah: there they lived with the king for his work.
1Ch 4:24 The sons of Simeon: Nemuel, and Jamin, Jarib, Zerah, Shaul;
1Ch 4:25 Shallum his son, Mibsam his son, Mishma his son.
1Ch 4:26 The sons of Mishma: Hammuel his son, Zaccur his son, Shimei his son.
1Ch 4:27 Shimei had sixteen sons and six daughters; but his brothers didn't have many children, neither did all their family multiply like the children of Judah.
1Ch 4:28 They lived at Beersheba, and Moladah, and Hazarshual,
1Ch 4:29 and at Bilhah, and at Ezem, and at Tolad,
1Ch 4:30 and at Bethuel, and at Hormah, and at Ziklag,
1Ch 4:31 and at Beth Marcaboth, and Hazar Susim, and at Beth Biri, and at Shaaraim. These were their cities to the reign of David.
1Ch 4:32 Their villages were Etam, and Ain, Rimmon, and Tochen, and Ashan, five cities;
1Ch 4:33 and all their villages that were around the same cities, to Baal. These were their habitations, and they have their genealogy.
1Ch 4:34 Meshobab, and Jamlech, and Joshah the son of Amaziah,
1Ch 4:35 and Joel, and Jehu the son of Joshibiah, the son of Seraiah, the son of Asiel,
1Ch 4:36 and Elioenai, and Jaakobah, and Jeshohaiah, and Asaiah, and Adiel, and Jesimiel, and Benaiah,
1Ch 4:37 and Ziza the son of Shiphi, the son of Allon, the son of Jedaiah, the son of Shimri, the son of Shemaiah--
1Ch 4:38 these mentioned by name were princes in their families: and their fathers' houses increased greatly.
1Ch 4:39 They went to the entrance of Gedor, even to the east side of the valley, to seek pasture for their flocks.
1Ch 4:40 They found fat pasture and good, and the land was wide, and quiet, and peaceable; for those who lived there before were of Ham.
1Ch 4:41 These written by name came in the days of Hezekiah king of Judah, and struck their tents, and the Meunim who were found there, and destroyed them utterly to this day, and lived in their place; because there was pasture there for their flocks.
1Ch 4:42 Some of them, even of the sons of Simeon, five hundred men, went to Mount Seir, having for their captains Pelatiah, and Neariah, and Rephaiah, and Uzziel, the sons of Ishi.
1Ch 4:43 They struck the remnant of the Amalekites who escaped, and have lived there to this day.
1Ch 5:1 The sons of Reuben the firstborn of Israel (for he was the firstborn; but, because he defiled his father's couch, his birthright was given to the sons of Joseph the son of Israel; and the genealogy is not to be reckoned after the birthright.
1Ch 5:2 For Judah prevailed above his brothers, and of him came the prince; but the birthright was Joseph's:)
1Ch 5:3 the sons of Reuben the firstborn of Israel: Hanoch, and Pallu, Hezron, and Carmi.
1Ch 5:4 The sons of Joel: Shemaiah his son, Gog his son, Shimei his son,
1Ch 5:5 Micah his son, Reaiah his son, Baal his son,
1Ch 5:6 Beerah his son, whom Tilgath Pilneser king of Assyria carried away captive: he was prince of the Reubenites.
1Ch 5:7 His brothers by their families, when the genealogy of their generations was reckoned: the chief, Jeiel, and Zechariah,
1Ch 5:8 and Bela the son of Azaz, the son of Shema, the son of Joel, who lived in Aroer, even to Nebo and Baal Meon:
1Ch 5:9 and eastward he lived even to the entrance of the wilderness from the river Euphrates, because their livestock were multiplied in the land of Gilead.
1Ch 5:10 In the days of Saul, they made war with the Hagrites, who fell by their hand; and they lived in their tents throughout all the land east of Gilead.
1Ch 5:11 The sons of Gad lived over against them, in the land of Bashan to Salecah:
1Ch 5:12 Joel the chief, and Shapham the second, and Janai, and Shaphat in Bashan.
1Ch 5:13 Their brothers of their fathers' houses: Michael, and Meshullam, and Sheba, and Jorai, and Jacan, and Zia, and Eber, seven.
1Ch 5:14 These were the sons of Abihail, the son of Huri, the son of Jaroah, the son of Gilead, the son of Michael, the son of Jeshishai, the son of Jahdo, the son of Buz;
1Ch 5:15 Ahi the son of Abdiel, the son of Guni, chief of their fathers' houses.
1Ch 5:16 They lived in Gilead in Bashan, and in its towns, and in all the suburbs of Sharon, as far as their borders.
1Ch 5:17 All these were reckoned by genealogies in the days of Jotham king of Judah, and in the days of Jeroboam king of Israel.
1Ch 5:18 The sons of Reuben, and the Gadites, and the half-tribe of Manasseh, of valiant men, men able to bear buckler and sword, and to shoot with bow, and skillful in war, were forty-four thousand seven hundred and sixty, that were able to go forth to war.
1Ch 5:19 They made war with the Hagrites, with Jetur, and Naphish, and Nodab.
1Ch 5:20 They were helped against them, and the Hagrites were delivered into their hand, and all who were with them; for they cried to God in the battle, and he was entreated of them, because they put their trust in him.
1Ch 5:21 They took away their livestock; of their camels fifty thousand, and of sheep two hundred fifty thousand, and of donkeys two thousand, and of men one hundred thousand.
1Ch 5:22 For there fell many slain, because the war was of God. They lived in their place until the captivity.
1Ch 5:23 The children of the half-tribe of Manasseh lived in the land: they increased from Bashan to Baal Hermon and Senir and Mount Hermon.
1Ch 5:24 These were the heads of their fathers' houses: even Epher, and Ishi, and Eliel, and Azriel, and Jeremiah, and Hodaviah, and Jahdiel, mighty men of valor, famous men, heads of their fathers' houses.
1Ch 5:25 They trespassed against the God of their fathers, and played the prostitute after the gods of the peoples of the land, whom God destroyed before them.
1Ch 5:26 The God of Israel stirred up the spirit of Pul king of Assyria, and the spirit of Tilgath Pilneser king of Assyria, and he carried them away, even the Reubenites, and the Gadites, and the half-tribe of Manasseh, and brought them to Halah, and Habor, and Hara, and to the river of Gozan, to this day.
1Ch 6:1 The sons of Levi: Gershon, Kohath, and Merari.
1Ch 6:2 The sons of Kohath: Amram, Izhar, and Hebron, and Uzziel.
1Ch 6:3 The children of Amram: Aaron, and Moses, and Miriam. The sons of Aaron: Nadab, and Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar.
1Ch 6:4 Eleazar became the father of Phinehas, Phinehas became the father of Abishua,
1Ch 6:5 and Abishua became the father of Bukki, and Bukki became the father of Uzzi,
1Ch 6:6 and Uzzi became the father of Zerahiah, and Zerahiah became the father of Meraioth,
1Ch 6:7 Meraioth became the father of Amariah, and Amariah became the father of Ahitub,
1Ch 6:8 and Ahitub became the father of Zadok, and Zadok became the father of Ahimaaz,
1Ch 6:9 and Ahimaaz became the father of Azariah, and Azariah became the father of Johanan,
1Ch 6:10 and Johanan became the father of Azariah, (he it is who executed the priest's office in the house that Solomon built in Jerusalem),
1Ch 6:11 and Azariah became the father of Amariah, and Amariah became the father of Ahitub,
1Ch 6:12 and Ahitub became the father of Zadok, and Zadok became the father of Shallum,
1Ch 6:13 and Shallum became the father of Hilkiah, and Hilkiah became the father of Azariah,
1Ch 6:14 and Azariah became the father of Seraiah, and Seraiah became the father of Jehozadak;
1Ch 6:15 Jehozadak went into captivity, when Yahweh carried away Judah and Jerusalem by the hand of Nebuchadnezzar.
1Ch 6:16 The sons of Levi: Gershom, Kohath, and Merari.
1Ch 6:17 These are the names of the sons of Gershom: Libni and Shimei.
1Ch 6:18 The sons of Kohath were Amram, and Izhar, and Hebron, and Uzziel.
1Ch 6:19 The sons of Merari: Mahli and Mushi. These are the families of the Levites according to their fathers' houses.
1Ch 6:20 Of Gershom: Libni his son, Jahath his son, Zimmah his son,
1Ch 6:21 Joah his son, Iddo his son, Zerah his son, Jeatherai his son.
1Ch 6:22 The sons of Kohath: Amminadab his son, Korah his son, Assir his son,
1Ch 6:23 Elkanah his son, and Ebiasaph his son, and Assir his son,
1Ch 6:24 Tahath his son, Uriel his son, Uzziah his son, and Shaul his son.
1Ch 6:25 The sons of Elkanah: Amasai, and Ahimoth.
1Ch 6:26 As for Elkanah, the sons of Elkanah: Zophai his son, and Nahath his son,
1Ch 6:27 Eliab his son, Jeroham his son, Elkanah his son.
1Ch 6:28 The sons of Samuel: the firstborn Joel, and the second Abijah.
1Ch 6:29 The sons of Merari: Mahli, Libni his son, Shimei his son, Uzzah his son,
1Ch 6:30 Shimea his son, Haggiah his son, Asaiah his son.
1Ch 6:31 These are they whom David set over the service of song in the house of Yahweh, after that the ark had rest.
1Ch 6:32 They ministered with song before the tabernacle of the Tent of Meeting, until Solomon had built the house of Yahweh in Jerusalem: and they waited on their office according to their order.
1Ch 6:33 These are those who waited, and their sons. Of the sons of the Kohathites: Heman the singer, the son of Joel, the son of Samuel,
1Ch 6:34 the son of Elkanah, the son of Jeroham, the son of Eliel, the son of Toah,
1Ch 6:35 the son of Zuph, the son of Elkanah, the son of Mahath, the son of Amasai,
1Ch 6:36 the son of Elkanah, the son of Joel, the son of Azariah, the son of Zephaniah,
1Ch 6:37 the son of Tahath, the son of Assir, the son of Ebiasaph, the son of Korah,
1Ch 6:38 the son of Izhar, the son of Kohath, the son of Levi, the son of Israel.
1Ch 6:39 His brother Asaph, who stood on his right hand, even Asaph the son of Berechiah, the son of Shimea,
1Ch 6:40 the son of Michael, the son of Baaseiah, the son of Malchijah,
1Ch 6:41 the son of Ethni, the son of Zerah, the son of Adaiah,
1Ch 6:42 the son of Ethan, the son of Zimmah, the son of Shimei,
1Ch 6:43 the son of Jahath, the son of Gershom, the son of Levi.
1Ch 6:44 On the left hand their brothers the sons of Merari: Ethan the son of Kishi, the son of Abdi, the son of Malluch,
1Ch 6:45 the son of Hashabiah, the son of Amaziah, the son of Hilkiah,
1Ch 6:46 the son of Amzi, the son of Bani, the son of Shemer,
1Ch 6:47 the son of Mahli, the son of Mushi, the son of Merari, the son of Levi.
1Ch 6:48 Their brothers the Levites were appointed for all the service of the tabernacle of the house of God.
1Ch 6:49 But Aaron and his sons offered on the altar of burnt offering, and on the altar of incense, for all the work of the most holy place, and to make atonement for Israel, according to all that Moses the servant of God had commanded.
1Ch 6:50 These are the sons of Aaron: Eleazar his son, Phinehas his son, Abishua his son,
1Ch 6:51 Bukki his son, Uzzi his son, Zerahiah his son,
1Ch 6:52 Meraioth his son, Amariah his son, Ahitub his son,
1Ch 6:53 Zadok his son, Ahimaaz his son.
1Ch 6:54 Now these are their dwelling places according to their encampments in their borders: to the sons of Aaron, of the families of the Kohathites (for theirs was the first lot),
1Ch 6:55 to them they gave Hebron in the land of Judah, and its suburbs around it;
1Ch 6:56 but the fields of the city, and its villages, they gave to Caleb the son of Jephunneh.
1Ch 6:57 To the sons of Aaron they gave the cities of refuge, Hebron; Libnah also with its suburbs, and Jattir, and Eshtemoa with its suburbs,
1Ch 6:58 and Hilen with its suburbs, Debir with its suburbs,
1Ch 6:59 and Ashan with its suburbs, and Beth Shemesh with its suburbs;
1Ch 6:60 and out of the tribe of Benjamin, Geba with its suburbs, and Allemeth with its suburbs, and Anathoth with its suburbs. All their cities throughout their families were thirteen cities.
1Ch 6:61 To the rest of the sons of Kohath were given by lot, out of the family of the tribe, out of the half-tribe, the half of Manasseh, ten cities.
1Ch 6:62 To the sons of Gershom, according to their families, out of the tribe of Issachar, and out of the tribe of Asher, and out of the tribe of Naphtali, and out of the tribe of Manasseh in Bashan, thirteen cities.
1Ch 6:63 To the sons of Merari were given by lot, according to their families, out of the tribe of Reuben, and out of the tribe of Gad, and out of the tribe of Zebulun, twelve cities.
1Ch 6:64 The children of Israel gave to the Levites the cities with their suburbs.
1Ch 6:65 They gave by lot out of the tribe of the children of Judah, and out of the tribe of the children of Simeon, and out of the tribe of the children of Benjamin, these cities which are mentioned by name.
1Ch 6:66 Some of the families of the sons of Kohath had cities of their borders out of the tribe of Ephraim.
1Ch 6:67 They gave to them the cities of refuge, Shechem in the hill country of Ephraim with its suburbs; Gezer also with its suburbs,
1Ch 6:68 and Jokmeam with its suburbs, and Beth Horon with its suburbs,
1Ch 6:69 and Aijalon with its suburbs, and Gath Rimmon with its suburbs;
1Ch 6:70 and out of the half-tribe of Manasseh, Aner with its suburbs, and Bileam with its suburbs, for the rest of the family of the sons of Kohath.
1Ch 6:71 To the sons of Gershom were given, out of the family of the half-tribe of Manasseh, Golan in Bashan with its suburbs, and Ashtaroth with its suburbs;
1Ch 6:72 and out of the tribe of Issachar, Kedesh with its suburbs, Daberath with its suburbs,
1Ch 6:73 and Ramoth with its suburbs, and Anem with its suburbs;
1Ch 6:74 and out of the tribe of Asher, Mashal with its suburbs, and Abdon with its suburbs,
1Ch 6:75 and Hukok with its suburbs, and Rehob with its suburbs;
1Ch 6:76 and out of the tribe of Naphtali, Kedesh in Galilee with its suburbs, and Hammon with its suburbs, and Kiriathaim with its suburbs.
1Ch 6:77 To the rest of the Levites, the sons of Merari, were given, out of the tribe of Zebulun, Rimmono with its suburbs, Tabor with its suburbs;
1Ch 6:78 and beyond the Jordan at Jericho, on the east side of the Jordan, were given them, out of the tribe of Reuben, Bezer in the wilderness with its suburbs, and Jahzah with its suburbs,
1Ch 6:79 and Kedemoth with its suburbs, and Mephaath with its suburbs;
1Ch 6:80 and out of the tribe of Gad, Ramoth in Gilead with its suburbs, and Mahanaim with its suburbs,
1Ch 6:81 and Heshbon with its suburbs, and Jazer with its suburbs.

Jul. 14, 15
Acts 10

Act 10:1 Now there was a certain man in Caesarea, Cornelius by name, a centurion of what was called the Italian Regiment,
Act 10:2 a devout man, and one who feared God with all his house, who gave gifts for the needy generously to the people, and always prayed to God.
Act 10:3 At about the ninth hour of the day, he clearly saw in a vision an angel of God coming to him, and saying to him, "Cornelius!"
Act 10:4 He, fastening his eyes on him, and being frightened, said, "What is it, Lord?" He said to him, "Your prayers and your gifts to the needy have gone up for a memorial before God.
Act 10:5 Now send men to Joppa, and get Simon, who is surnamed Peter.
Act 10:6 He lodges with one Simon, a tanner, whose house is by the seaside."
Act 10:7 When the angel who spoke to him had departed, Cornelius called two of his household servants and a devout soldier of those who waited on him continually.
Act 10:8 Having explained everything to them, he sent them to Joppa.
Act 10:9 Now on the next day as they were on their journey, and got close to the city, Peter went up on the housetop to pray at about noon.
Act 10:10 He became hungry and desired to eat, but while they were preparing, he fell into a trance.
Act 10:11 He saw heaven opened and a certain container descending to him, like a great sheet let down by four corners on the earth,
Act 10:12 in which were all kinds of four-footed animals of the earth, wild animals, reptiles, and birds of the sky.
Act 10:13 A voice came to him, "Rise, Peter, kill and eat!"
Act 10:14 But Peter said, "Not so, Lord; for I have never eaten anything that is common or unclean."
Act 10:15 A voice came to him again the second time, "What God has cleansed, you must not call unclean."
Act 10:16 This was done three times, and immediately the vessel was received up into heaven.
Act 10:17 Now while Peter was very perplexed in himself what the vision which he had seen might mean, behold, the men who were sent by Cornelius, having made inquiry for Simon's house, stood before the gate,
Act 10:18 and called and asked whether Simon, who was surnamed Peter, was lodging there.
Act 10:19 While Peter was pondering the vision, the Spirit said to him, "Behold, three men seek you.
Act 10:20 But arise, get down, and go with them, doubting nothing; for I have sent them."
Act 10:21 Peter went down to the men, and said, "Behold, I am he whom you seek. Why have you come?"
Act 10:22 They said, "Cornelius, a centurion, a righteous man and one who fears God, and well spoken of by all the nation of the Jews, was directed by a holy angel to invite you to his house, and to listen to what you say."
Act 10:23 So he called them in and lodged them. On the next day Peter arose and went out with them, and some of the brothers from Joppa accompanied him.
Act 10:24 On the next day they entered into Caesarea. Cornelius was waiting for them, having called together his relatives and his near friends.
Act 10:25 When it happened that Peter entered, Cornelius met him, fell down at his feet, and worshiped him.
Act 10:26 But Peter raised him up, saying, "Stand up! I myself am also a man."
Act 10:27 As he talked with him, he went in and found many gathered together.
Act 10:28 He said to them, "You yourselves know how it is an unlawful thing for a man who is a Jew to join himself or come to one of another nation, but God has shown me that I shouldn't call any man unholy or unclean.
Act 10:29 Therefore also I came without complaint when I was sent for. I ask therefore, why did you send for me?"
Act 10:30 Cornelius said, "Four days ago, I was fasting until this hour, and at the ninth hour, I prayed in my house, and behold, a man stood before me in bright clothing,
Act 10:31 and said, 'Cornelius, your prayer is heard, and your gifts to the needy are remembered in the sight of God.
Act 10:32 Send therefore to Joppa, and summon Simon, who is surnamed Peter. He lodges in the house of Simon a tanner, by the seaside. When he comes, he will speak to you.'
Act 10:33 Therefore I sent to you at once, and it was good of you to come. Now therefore we are all here present in the sight of God to hear all things that have been commanded you by God."
Act 10:34 Peter opened his mouth and said, "Truly I perceive that God doesn't show favoritism;
Act 10:35 but in every nation he who fears him and works righteousness is acceptable to him.
Act 10:36 The word which he sent to the children of Israel, preaching good news of peace by Jesus Christ-he is Lord of all-
Act 10:37 that spoken word you yourselves know, which was proclaimed throughout all Judea, beginning from Galilee, after the baptism which John preached;
Act 10:38 even Jesus of Nazareth, how God anointed him with the Holy Spirit and with power, who went about doing good and healing all who were oppressed by the devil, for God was with him.
Act 10:39 We are witnesses of everything he did both in the country of the Jews, and in Jerusalem; whom they also killed, hanging him on a tree.
Act 10:40 God raised him up the third day, and gave him to be revealed,
Act 10:41 not to all the people, but to witnesses who were chosen before by God, to us, who ate and drank with him after he rose from the dead.
Act 10:42 He commanded us to preach to the people and to testify that this is he who is appointed by God as the Judge of the living and the dead.
Act 10:43 All the prophets testify about him, that through his name everyone who believes in him will receive remission of sins."
Act 10:44 While Peter was still speaking these words, the Holy Spirit fell on all those who heard the word.
Act 10:45 They of the circumcision who believed were amazed, as many as came with Peter, because the gift of the Holy Spirit was also poured out on the Gentiles.
Act 10:46 For they heard them speaking in other languages and magnifying God. Then Peter answered,
Act 10:47 "Can any man forbid the water, that these who have received the Holy Spirit as well as we should not be baptized?"
Act 10:48 He commanded them to be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ. Then they asked him to stay some days.