From Jim McGuiggan... Deuteronomy 25:5-10, Levirate Law

Deuteronomy 25:5-10, Levirate Law

A reader raises the topic of the Levirate arrangement in the OT where a brother would take his brother’s widow to wife and raise children to him (see Deuteronomy 25:5-10; the word "levirate" comes from the Latin levir meaning "husband’s brother"). He wonders about such structures and about polygamy and concubinage. I'm certain he’s right when he implies that polygamy and other institutions like it fall short of the one flesh union God gifted humans with and purposed for his glory and their enrichment. In that respect there's something "adulterous" about all those arrangements. As you know very well, they were regulated by God rather than approved.

Why God would tolerate these arrangements is another question. The reader and I are both committed to the view that God does what is right whether we understand it or not, but sometimes it's hard to follow God’s thinking. This is one of those areas where I find his "argument" hard to follow.

If we knew as much as he does (and I don't mean if we were omniscient) we'd understand the larger context of the tolerance. Sometimes it isn't a question of having specific knowledge on an issue—it’s a stress or a higher value on this or that that's missing in us. And sometimes the value is not in the arrangement itself or its immediate function, but in what is to be gained in the long term.

But beyond that—and this needs to be stated and developed with care—I’m persuaded that the patriarchal dominance that’s taken for granted in the OT is (in part) the outworking of the curse outlined in Genesis 3:16. We don’t hear of God regulating structures where women have numerous "husbands" or of legislation about women divorcing husbands because they find something in them that displeases the wives. As Genesis 3 tells it, both male and female united in sinning against God and redemptive chastisement falls on them. Sinful men exploited women—this was the outworking of God’s curse so it’s a combination of divine appointment and human wickedness. He means it for good and we mean it for evil, as it was in the cross of Christ and a host of human structures. To examine biblical laws and structures in (near) isolation, as independent realities, misses the full picture. I think the above needs to be borne in mind when we looks at things like polygamy, "slavery" (in some forms), concubinage and Levirate structures.

Certainly the Levirate arrangement had ramifications for the inheritance and the continuation of the name of the brother and that is what seems prominent in the texts dealing with the structure. But I think the land promise as it functioned within Israel has other and larger concerns—it has typological/theological ramifications and when we enter the gospel era, in the exaltation of the Christ, that piece of land is enlarged to the entire planet (see Romans 4:13). Land in the Bible is not just "turf". It's that, but it's also a token of "life with God". A major stress on the land inheritance throughout scripture is that God provides it to the powerless. It is always "gift" and cannot be seized or shrewdly gained in a sinister way. God saw to it that Abraham's "dead" body and Sarah's "dead" womb did not keep them from family and land and this Levirate arrangement may have something of all that in it. The "gospel" is being proclaimed in it as it is in other Israelite structures such as the redeeming of the firstborn, the Passover, and so forth. I'm sure that there is much more involved in God's regulating the Levirate arrangement than the immediate social/economic benefits. (It won't hurt to remark that all the social/economic benefits have a larger context within "the favour of God.")

Since God saw fit to tolerate and regulate polygamy and concubinage maybe we shouldn't be surprised that a Levirate arrangement was constructed (given the other considerations just hinted at). If it should be said—and it should be—that it is less than Genesis 2 and God's heart's desire, we should acknowledge it. Then, I suppose, we'd begin to speak of God gaining his ultimate ends in and through sinful people rather than the innocent ones he created in the Garden. Either obliterate sinners completely or gain your end through the realisable best until your ultimate holy aim is achieved. Maybe that's what faced God.

The above, I think, still stands, but it's clear that God didn't see the brother raising up a family to his dead brother as a casual thing. He slew Onan for getting the pleasure while treacherously taking advantage of his dead brother and his widow (Genesis 38:8-9). The same is true in the matter of concubines. There can be no suggestion that concubinage satisfied the heart of God, but a concubine was regarded as a wife (a wife with fewer "legal" rights). Reuben was rejected in favour of Judah because he slept with his father Jacob's concubine (Genesis 35:22 and 49:3-4). So polygamy, concubinage and the Levirate structure were not cases of people just "sleeping around". These were serious social structures that God made use of in gaining his greater ends. How he could do that is to be wondered at in many ways, one of them is that it is a marvel of grace and patience, and, in addition, as redemptive chastisement.

Look Who’s Talking by Eric Lyons, M.Min.


Look Who’s Talking

by  Eric Lyons, M.Min.

As we study and defend the Bible, we must keep in mind that we are dealing with an inspired record that contains numerous uninspired statements. Even though “all Scripture is given by inspiration of God” (2 Timothy 3:16), not everything that the inspired writers recorded was a true statement. For example, after God created Adam, He told him not to eat of the tree of knowledge of good and evil lest he die (Genesis 2:17). Yet, when the serpent approached Eve, he “informed” her that she would not die if she ate of this forbidden fruit (3:4). Obviously, Satan was not inspired by God to say “You will not surely die.” In fact, as we learn earlier, he actually lied (John 8:44). However, when Moses recorded the events that took place in Eden hundreds of years later, he wrote by inspiration of God (cf. Luke 24:44; John 5:46). When Jesus healed a demoniac, some of the Pharisees accused Him of casting out demons, not by the power of God but by the power of “Beelzebub, the ruler of the demons” (Matthew 12:24). Like Moses, Matthew did not write a lie, but merely reported a lie. The inspired writers of the Bible are in no way responsible for the inaccurate statements that are recorded therein. Whether the statements were true or false, they reported them accurately.
When giving a defense for a particular truth the Bible teaches (cf. 1 Peter 3:15), or when refuting the error that someone else may be teaching (cf. Ephesians 5:11; 2 Timothy 4:2), we must keep in mind who is doing the talking. The above examples are rather elementary: Satan’s statement and the Pharisees allegations clearly were false. But what about when statements are made by individuals who do not seem “as bad” as these?
Oftentimes when attempting to defend a certain doctrine, a person will quote a verse from the book of Job and say, “See, that’s what it says…the book of Job says…therefore my doctrine is proven true.” Not long ago I read an article by a gentleman who was defending a doctrine by citing various verses in the book of Job. This man never indicated who made the statements; he simply cited all of them as being true statements. Those who “defend the truth” in such a way totally disregard one of the fundamental rules of interpretation, i.e., knowing who is speaking. One who studies Job must realize that it is an inspired book that contains many uninspired statements. For instance, we know that Job’s wife was incorrect when she told him to “curse God and die” (Job 2:9). We also know that many statements made by Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar were incorrect. Nine of the 42 chapters in the book were speeches by these “miserable comforters” (16:2) whom God said had “not spoken of Me what is right, as My servant Job has” (42:7). Clearly then, one never should quote these men and claim it as an inspired truth.
Finally, we must understand that even though Job was “blameless and upright, and one who feared God and shunned evil” (1:1), there is no indication that his speeches were inspired. Neither He nor anyone else in the book ever claimed his statements were “given by inspiration of God.” In fact, when Jehovah finally answered Job out of the whirlwind, He asked: “Who is this who darkens counsel by words without knowledge?” (38:2, emp. added). Obviously, God never would have asked such a rhetorical question had Job been inspired. Prior to the Lord’s speeches, Elihu twice accused Job of the very same thing (34:35; 35:16). Later, Job even said himself: “I have uttered what I did not understand, things too wonderful for me, which I did not know” (42:3, emp. added; cf. 30:16-23). Clearly, then, these passages indicate that Job’s speeches were not inspired.
Through the years, various authors have sought to establish scientific foreknowledge in the passage found in Job 26:7 where Job, in speaking of God, observed that “He stretches out the north over empty space; He hangs the earth on nothing.” Two items from this passage are alleged to be prescientific in nature. First, appeals have been made to the fact that one supposedly can observe an “empty space” in the northern skies—a space where there are no stars, thus corroborating Job’s statement about an “empty space” in the north. Second, some have suggested that since Job’s phrase, “He hangs the earth on nothing,” is literally true (because as everyone now knows, the Earth is freely suspended in space), this is an example of scientific foreknowledge. But if we attempt to convince people that this verse is to be taken literally, how do we then consistently deal with statements in the same chapter that obviously are figurative (such as verse 11: “The pillars of heaven tremble, and are astonished at his rebuke”)? Further, there is no empty space in the north. Instead, “billions of stars and galaxies extend outward in all directions” (DeYoung, 1989, p. 95). [Job was not speaking of a literal “empty space” in the north. During his day, pagan gods of idolaters were said to live “in the north.” Job pointed out, correctly, that this could not be true because in the north there was nothing but “an empty space.”]
The honest Christian desires to defend the Word of God with every legitimate weapon in the apologetic arsenal. However, we only hurt the cause of Christ when we employ arguments that are backed by uninspired statements. When studying your Bible or when teaching and defending one of its many truths, always remember to look who’s talking.


DeYoung, Donald B. (1989), Astronomy and the Bible (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker).

From Mark Copeland... Introduction to Mark

                          "THE GOSPEL OF MARK"



1. "The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God"...
   a. So begins the Gospel according to Mark - Mk 1:1
   b. The shortest of the four gospels, likely the first one written
   c. Often overlooked because of the gospels of Matthew and Luke

2. Yet the Believer's Bible Commentary notes that because of its
   a. Mark's gospel is an ideal introduction to the Christian faith
   b. In mission fields it is often the first book translated into a new

[Who was Mark?  What makes his gospel unique?  Let's start with...]


   A. JOHN MARK...
      1. Who apparently came from a wealthy family
         a. His mother was Mary, who had a large house in Jerusalem - Ac 12:12
            1) Some speculate the Last Supper took place in her home
            2) Also that Mark may have been the young man who fled naked
               - Mk 14:51-52
         b. His cousin was Barnabas, a Levite from Cyprus - Ac 4:36-37;
            Col 4:10
      2. Who traveled with Paul and Barnabas
         a. Starting out on their first missionary journey, but turned
            back - Ac 13:5,13
         b. Which caused trouble between Paul and Barnabas - Ac 15:36-41
         c. He later became a fellow laborer and comfort to Paul - Phe
            1:24; Col 4:10-11
         d. In Paul's final words, Mark proved "useful to me for
            ministry" - 2Ti 4:11
      3. Who also accompanied Peter
         a. Who called him "his son" (his convert?) - 1Pe 5:13
         b. Who was in "Babylon" (possibly Rome) at the time
      4. Traditions outside the Bible state:
         a. Mark was an interpreter for Peter - Papias, 130 A.D.
         b. Mark composed his gospel mostly from Peter's memoirs
            - Justin Martyr, 150 A.D.
         c. Mark went to Alexandria in Egypt where he died in 64 A.D.
      -- The early and unanimous opinion is that John Mark wrote this

   B. BEFORE 64 A.D....
      1. Certainly so, if written by one who died in 64 A.D.
      2. Barnes suggests between 56 and 63 A.D.
      3. Some scholars date the book in the early 50's
      -- A plausible date would 57-59 A.D. (Bible Knowledge Commentary)

[Now for some information about Mark's gospel in particular...]


      1. Written to Gentiles, perhaps Christians in Rome (BKC); note the
         a. Jewish customs are explained - e.g., Mk 7:3-4
         b. Aramaic expresses are translated into Greek - e.g., Mk 3:17;
            5:41; 7:11
         c. Roman reckoning of time is used - e.g., Mk 6:48; 13:35
         d. Only Mark identifies Simon of Cyrene as the father of Rufus
            - cf. Mk 15:21; Ro 16:13
         e. Few OT quotations are used
      2. The focus appears to be on Jesus as the Perfect Servant (BBC)
         a. Mark emphasizes the deeds of the Lord more than His words
         b. He records nineteen miracles, but only four parables
         c. The deeds of one who "did not come to be served, but to
            serve" - Mk 10:45
      -- Thus one could say that the theme is:  "Jesus, Servant of Man"

      1. The preparation for Jesus' ministry - Mk 1:2-13
      2. His ministry in Galilee - Mk 1:14-9:50
      3. His journey to Jerusalem - Mk 10:1-52
      4. His ministry in Jerusalem - Mk 11:1-13:37
      5. His suffering and death in Jerusalem - Mk 14:1-15:47
      6. His resurrection and appearances - Mk 16:1-13
      7. His great commission and continued work from heaven - Mk 16:
      -- Jesus came from heaven to serve, and returned to heaven to

[Perhaps of further interest are some...]


      1. Probably the first one written
      2. All but 31 verses are quoted in the other gospels
      3. Leading many to conclude that Matthew and Luke based their
         gospels on Mark

      1. The shortest of the four gospels
      2. Luke has 1151 verses, Matthew 1071, John 879, Mark 661
      3. Mark's entire gospel can be read aloud in 1.5 hours

      1. Over 40 times he uses a word translated "straightway" or
      2. Two-thirds of the verses begin with "and"
      3. The present tense is used frequently (e.g., they come...He
         says...He sends...)

      1. Mark presents "lively little touches" not found in the other
         gospels - Hendriksen
      2. "...he wrote with all the graphic distinctiveness and vividness
         of an eyewitness - Erdman
      3. It may have been Peter's reminiscences, or perhaps his own,
         that account for such details

      1. It opens with "The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ..."
         - Mk 1:1
      2. It closes with "Go into all the world and preach the gospel to
         every creature" - Mk 16:15


1. What Mark accomplished with his gospel in the first century was
   a. He left a record of the gospel preached by Peter
   b. Which emphasized the things that Jesus did - cf. Ac 10:36-39
   c. That stressed the servitude of Jesus as the Son of Man - cf. Mk 10:45

2. It can serve an important purpose for us today, reminding us...
   a. That Jesus came to serve, and continues to serve - cf. He 7:25
   b. That Christian discipleship likewise involves service - cf. Ga 5:13

3. Mark's own life was one of early failure, redeemed by later devotion
   a. He got off to a rocky start in his service for the gospel of
   b. But he persevered and proved to Paul that he was "useful...for

May his gospel of Jesus Christ, who came to serve, inspire us to become
servants who are also:

   "useful for the Master, prepared for every good work" - 2Ti 2:21

Executable Outlines, Copyright © Mark A. Copeland, 2011

From Mark Copeland... The Great Commission (Matthew 28:16-20)

                        "THE GOSPEL OF MATTHEW"

                    The Great Commission (28:16-20)


1. The gospel of Matthew ends with Jesus meeting with His apostles in
   a. Foretold by Jesus before His betrayal - Mt 26:31-32
   b. Announced by both an angel and Jesus after His resurrection - Mt28:7,10

2. It was a meeting filled with mixed emotions - Mt 28:16-17
   a. Seeing Jesus, they worshipped Him
   b. Yet some were doubtful
      1) It is unlikely this refers to the apostles, for they had seen
         Jesus earlier - cf. Jn 20:19-20,24-29
      2) This may have been the occasion where over 500 saw Him at
         once, and some may have wondered what they were seeing - cf.
         1Co 15:6

3. It was a meeting in which Jesus gave His disciples a command - Mt 28:18-20
   a. To make disciples of all the nations
   b. Baptizing and teaching them
   -- Ending with a promise to always be with them

[This command is commonly called "The Great Commission".  As we take a
few moments to look at it more closely, we may better understand what
was so "great" about it...]


      1. As the Creator, He had the original right to all things - Co 1:16-17
      2. As our Redeemer, even more so! - Php 2:6-11

      1. He now rules in the heavenly realm - 1Pe 3:22; Ep 1:20-23
      2. He also rules over the kings of the earth! - Re 1:5; Ps 2:
         1-12; 110:1-6

      1. Jesus certainly deserves our obedience to Him as Lord - Ac 2:
         36; Lk 6:46
      2. Jesus certainly can deliver on His promises - 2Pe 1:2-5

[On the basis of such great authority, Jesus gives "The Great 
Commission".  As we continue, we notice that it is...]


      1. The KJV says "teach", the Greek word means "to make disciples"
      2. Thus they were to make "learners", "adherents", "imitators" of
         Jesus Christ
         a. Jesus had been inviting people to become His disciples all
            along - Mt 4:18-22; 11:28-30
         b. He expected His disciples to become like Him - Lk 6:40

      1. First, by "baptizing them" in the name of the Father, Son, and
         Holy Spirit
         a. A baptism for the remission of sins - Ac 2:38; 22:16
         b. A baptism in water - Ac 8:35-38; 10:47-48
         c. A burial - Ro 6:3-6; Col 2:11-12
      2. Then by "teaching them to observe all things" He had commanded
         a. Baptism is only the beginning, teaching must continue
         b. Such was the case with the early disciples - Ac 2:41-42
      -- Both baptism and ongoing teaching is essential to true

[We should also observe concerning "The Great Commission" that it


      1. They were to go into all the world, and preach to every
         creature - Mk 16:15
      2. They were to be witnesses to the uttermost parts of the earth
         - Ac 1:8

      1. With the Limited Commission, it was just for Israel - Mt 10:
      2. Now the Gentiles (all nations) could become fellow-heirs - Ep 2:11-22

      1. Jesus would have us think "globally", not just locally
      2. While we should be mindful of our local community, we should
         also be thinking of those abroad

[Finally, we note concerning "The Great Commission" that it is...]


      1. A promise similar to those Jesus made earlier:
         a. To His apostles - Mt 18:20
         b. To those who keep His commandments - Jn 14:18-23
      2. A promise similar to those God gave to:
         a. Moses - Exo 3:11-12
         b. Joshua - Josh 1:5
         c. The nation of Israel - Isa 41:10
      3. A promise that ought to provide much comfort when oppressed
         - Ro 8:31-38; He 13:5-6

      1. Even to the time when:
         a. The Great Harvest will occur - Mt 13:39-43
         b. The wicked shall be separated from the just - Mt 13:49
      2. Throughout this Christian age or dispensation, Jesus will
         forever be with His disciples
         a. As they go into all the world
         b. Making more disciples


1. Is "The Great Commission" limited just to the apostles?
   a. Note well that disciples were to "observe all things that I
      commanded you"
   b. What did Jesus just command the apostles? (Go therefore and make
   c. Future disciples were to observe all commands, including this
   -- Therefore "The Great Commission" is a commission to the church as

2. Do we honor "The Great Commission" in our lives?  We do if we are...
   a. Submitting to the authority of Jesus
   b. Working to make disciples of Jesus
   c. Striving to make disciples in all the nations of the world
   d. Abiding in His Word and thereby ensuring His abiding presence in
      our lives

Shortly after giving "The Great Commission", Jesus ascended to heaven
(Ac 1:9-11).  His earliest disciples took that commission and did
great things with it.

May these words of Jesus motivate us to do great things in our service
to Him also!

Executable Outlines, Copyright © Mark A. Copeland, 2011

From Mark Copeland... Alternatives To The Resurrection (Matthew 28:11-15)

                        "THE GOSPEL OF MATTHEW"

              Alternatives To The Resurrection (28:11-15)


1. There are certain facts of history that no one can deny...
   a. Many people testified they saw Jesus raised from the dead
   b. These same people suffered greatly because of their testimony
   -- Such facts support the actual resurrection of Jesus from the dead

2. From the beginning, there have been alternative theories to explain
   the empty tomb...
   a. Matthew records the earliest theory: the disciples stole the body
      - Mt 28:11-15
   b. Other theories have been raised as well

3. Because of the significance of the resurrection (described in a
   previous lesson)...
   a. Those opposed to the gospel know this event must be discredited
   b. We who believe in Jesus must always be ready to provide a defense
      - 1Pe 3:15
      1) Not only why we accept the testimony of the witnesses (see
         previous lesson)
      2) But why we find alternative explanations impossible to accept

[In this study, we shall consider various "Alternatives To The
Resurrection", and why they are inadequate to explain the empty tomb.
We begin with the first explanation...]


      1. The disciples stole the body, then claimed He rose from the
      2. This was the "official" theory offered from the very beginning
         - Mt 28:11-15

      1. The explanation defies logic
         a. If the soldiers were asleep...
            1) How did they know it was the disciples who took the
            2) How could the large stone guarding the entrance be
               rolled away without awakening the soldiers?
         b. The soldiers guarding the tomb were Romans - Mt 27:62-66
            1) They were professional soldiers
            2) Charged to guard the tomb with their lives
            3) The punishment for falling asleep on duty was death
      2. This would make those who testified they saw Jesus liars and
         a. As we saw in the previous lesson, they claimed empirical
         b. Suppose just a few disciples stole the body, unbeknown by
            1) Such as Nicodemus, Joseph of Arimathea, or the women
            2) Others still say they saw Jesus, ate and drank with Him
         c. You have to explain why they were willing to lie and die
            knowing it was a lie

[The likelihood of timid disciples stealing the body of Jesus out from
under the noses of highly disciplined and skilled Roman soldiers while
they slept (an offense punishable by death) is hard to believe! Perhaps
that is why those who refuse to believe in the resurrection have
proposed alternative explanations, one being...]


      1. The women went to the wrong tomb, and found it empty
      2. They erroneously concluded that Jesus had risen, and their
         story spread

      1. The women had been to the tomb before - Mt 27:61
      2. The religious and political leaders could have easily silenced
         the apostles' claim
         a. If the women went to the wrong tomb, then the right tomb
            was still sealed and guarded by the Roman soldiers
         b. When the apostles' created an uproar with their story of
            the resurrection of Jesus (cf. Ac 4:1-2; 5:27-33), the
            Jewish leaders could have directed people to the right tomb
            and presented the body of Jesus!
      3. You still have the testimony of the apostles to contend with

[A more popular explanation in some circles is...]


      1. Jesus did not actually die on the cross, He only swooned
         a. Suffering from shock, pain, and loss of blood, He fainted
            (swooned) from exhaustion
         b. Thinking that He was dead, the Roman soldiers took Him down
            and buried Him in the tomb
      2. In the coolness of the tomb, Jesus revived
         a. Somehow He left the tomb
         b. Appeared to His disciples, then lived in obscurity to die
            years later

      1. Jesus would have had to revive sufficiently enough to:
         a. Break through the burial garments that bound Him, including
            a hundred pounds of spices used in preparing His body for
            burial - Jn 19:38-40
         b. Role away the large stone that sealed the tomb
         c. Fight off the Roman guards protecting the tomb
         d. Walk the seven miles to Emmaus where He was seen by the two
         e. Walk back to Jerusalem where He was seen by the apostles
         -- All within the same day!
      2. Every effort was made to prove He was dead
         a. The Roman soldiers at the cross pierced His side - Jn 19:
            1) Out of which flowed blood and water
            2) An indication He was already dead, having died of a
               ruptured heart
         b. Pilate made sure He was dead - Mk 15:43-45
            1) When Joseph of Arimathea wanted the body
            2) The Roman centurion confirmed that Jesus was dead
      3. Not only would this make the apostles liars and frauds, but
         Jesus also for allowing a lie to spread for years!

[Another popular alternative explanation is...]


      1. All of Christ's post-resurrection appearances were only
         supposed appearances
      2. Those who claimed to see Jesus had hallucinations

      1. Remember that the appearances were not just to individuals,
         one at a time
         a. The two disciples on the road to Emmaus claimed to see Him
            - Lk 24:13-35
         b. Ten apostles claimed to see Him - Jn 20:19-25
         c. He appeared to over 500 people at once - 1Co 15:6
      2. The hallucination theory contradicts laws and principles which
         psychiatrists say are essential to hallucinations:
         a. Only certain kinds of people have hallucinations
            1) These are usually high-strung, highly imaginative, and
               very nervous people
            2) Usually only paranoid or schizophrenic individuals have
            3) The appearances were not restricted to people of any
               particular psychological make up
         b. Hallucinations are linked in an individual's subconscious
            1) An individual may have an hallucination
            2) But hallucinations do not appear to groups of people
         c. They occur in people when there is a spirit of anticipation
            or hopeful expectation
            1) The disciples had no such anticipation - Lk 24:13-21
            2) They were prone to disbelieve even after they were told
               of the resurrection - Jn 20:24-25

[Then there is the theory that...]


      1. The appearances were not really Christ at all, but someone
         impersonating Him
      2. This is evident because in some cases they did not recognize
         Him at first

      1. The disciples were reluctant to believe in the resurrection
         a. Some were doubtful, such as Thomas - Jn 20:24-25
         b. It would have been hard to convince them unless it was
            really Him
      2. It would have been impossible to impersonate Christ's wounds
         a. This was Christ's proof it was really Him - Jn 20:26-27
         b. Which convinced doubting Thomas - Jn 20:28-29
      3. The apostles traveled with Jesus for three years
         a. It is incredible that anyone could have gotten away with an
         b. Which is why the apostles were witnesses of the 
            resurrection - Ac 10:39-41
      4. The one claiming to be Jesus performed miracles
         a. Suddenly appearing in locked rooms - Jn 20:19
         b. Directing them how to catch fish - Jn 21:1-7

[Closely related to this would be the theory that...]


      1. The disciples simply mistook for Jesus someone who looked like
      2. For example, the women mistook the gardener for Jesus - Jn 20:

      1. The same problems as with the impersonation theory
         a. Disciples reluctant to believe in the resurrection
         b. Impossible to recreate the wounds of Jesus
         c. Ample time with Jesus to verify His identity
      2. While Mary may have mistaken Jesus for the gardener, she was
         able to look through her grief and recognize who He was

[Finally, here is an alternative proposed by some theologians who just
cannot accept the idea of a physical, bodily resurrection...]


      1. Christ's resurrection was not a real physical resurrection
      2. Christ's body remained in the grave and His real resurrection
         was spiritual in nature
      3. It was only told this way to illustrate the truth of spiritual

      1. If it was only a spiritual resurrection, what happened to the
         a. The enemies of Christ were never able to produce a body
         b. Which they would have gladly done to discredit the apostles
      2. Again, the nature of the apostles' testimony is empirical:
         they ate and drank with Him, touched Him - Lk 24:36-43; Ac 10:
         39-41; 1Jn 1:1-2
      3. Paul argued a bodily resurrection of Jesus as evidence for our
         own bodily resurrection - 1Co 15:12-58


1. The resurrection of Jesus has been variously interpreted as...
   a. A great hoax (the resurrection is false)
   b. Mythology (the resurrection is fiction)
   -- Therefore various alternatives have been proposed to explain the
      empty tomb

2. But there is only one interpretation worth accepting...
   a. It is the supreme event of history (the resurrection is fact)
   b. Supported by empirical testimony provided by reliable witnesses
   c. With implications of great significance for both unbeliever and
      believer alike

When you consider the strength of the apostles' testimony, and contrast
it with the weakness of the alternative explanations that have been
proposed, it leads an honest person in only one direction:  to faith in
Jesus Christ as the Son of God...

   "And truly Jesus did many other signs in the presence of His
   disciples, which are not written in this book; but these are
   written that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son
   of God, and that believing you may have life in His name."
                                                     (Jn 20:30-31)

Are you willing to believe in Jesus, that you might have life in His
name?  Then heed the words of the apostle Peter proclaimed in the first
gospel sermon:

   "Therefore let all the house of Israel know assuredly that God
   has made this Jesus, whom you crucified, both Lord and Christ."
   Now when they heard this, they were cut to the heart, and said
   to Peter and the rest of the apostles, "Men and brethren, what
   shall we do?"  Then Peter said to them, "Repent, and let every
   one of you be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ for the
   remission of sins; and you shall receive the gift of the Holy
   Spirit.  For the promise is to you and to your children, and to
   all who are afar off, as many as the Lord our God will call."
                                                       (Ac 2:36-39)

Executable Outlines, Copyright © Mark A. Copeland, 2011

From Gary... Bible Reading November 20

Bible Reading   

November 20

The World English Bible

Nov. 20
Jeremiah 30-33

Jer 30:1 The word that came to Jeremiah from Yahweh, saying,
Jer 30:2 Thus speaks Yahweh, the God of Israel, saying, Write you all the words that I have spoken to you in a book.
Jer 30:3 For, behold, the days come, says Yahweh, that I will turn again the captivity of my people Israel and Judah, says Yahweh; and I will cause them to return to the land that I gave to their fathers, and they shall possess it.
Jer 30:4 These are the words that Yahweh spoke concerning Israel and concerning Judah.
Jer 30:5 For thus says Yahweh: We have heard a voice of trembling, of fear, and not of peace.
Jer 30:6 Ask now, and see whether a man does travail with child: why do I see every man with his hands on his waist, as a woman in travail, and all faces are turned into paleness?
Jer 30:7 Alas! for that day is great, so that none is like it: it is even the time of Jacob's trouble; but he shall be saved out of it.
Jer 30:8 It shall come to pass in that day, says Yahweh of Armies, that I will break his yoke from off your neck, and will burst your bonds; and strangers shall no more make him their bondservant;
Jer 30:9 but they shall serve Yahweh their God, and David their king, whom I will raise up to them.
Jer 30:10 Therefore don't you be afraid, O Jacob my servant, says Yahweh; neither be dismayed, Israel: for, behold, I will save you from afar, and your seed from the land of their captivity; and Jacob shall return, and shall be quiet and at ease, and none shall make him afraid.
Jer 30:11 For I am with you, says Yahweh, to save you: for I will make a full end of all the nations where I have scattered you, but I will not make a full end of you; but I will correct you in measure, and will in no way leave you unpunished.
Jer 30:12 For thus says Yahweh, Your hurt is incurable, and your wound grievous.
Jer 30:13 There is none to plead your cause, that you may be bound up: you have no healing medicines.
Jer 30:14 All your lovers have forgotten you; they don't seek you: for I have wounded you with the wound of an enemy, with the chastisement of a cruel one, for the greatness of your iniquity, because your sins were increased.
Jer 30:15 Why cry you for your hurt? your pain is incurable: for the greatness of your iniquity, because your sins were increased, I have done these things to you.
Jer 30:16 Therefore all those who devour you shall be devoured; and all your adversaries, everyone of them, shall go into captivity; and those who despoil you shall be a spoil, and all who prey on you will I give for a prey.
Jer 30:17 For I will restore health to you, and I will heal you of your wounds, says Yahweh; because they have called you an outcast, saying, It is Zion, whom no man seeks after.
Jer 30:18 Thus says Yahweh: Behold, I will turn again the captivity of Jacob's tents, and have compassion on his dwelling places; and the city shall be built on its own hill, and the palace shall be inhabited after its own manner.
Jer 30:19 Out of them shall proceed thanksgiving and the voice of those who make merry: and I will multiply them, and they shall not be few; I will also glorify them, and they shall not be small.
Jer 30:20 Their children also shall be as before, and their congregation shall be established before me; and I will punish all who oppress them.
Jer 30:21 Their prince shall be of themselves, and their ruler shall proceed from the midst of them; and I will cause him to draw near, and he shall approach to me: for who is he who has had boldness to approach to me? says Yahweh.
Jer 30:22 You shall be my people, and I will be your God.
Jer 30:23 Behold, the storm of Yahweh, even his wrath, is gone forth, a sweeping storm: it shall burst on the head of the wicked.
Jer 30:24 The fierce anger of Yahweh shall not return, until he has executed, and until he have performed the intents of his heart: in the latter days you shall understand it.
Jer 31:1 At that time, says Yahweh, will I be the God of all the families of Israel, and they shall be my people.
Jer 31:2 Thus says Yahweh, The people who were left of the sword found favor in the wilderness; even Israel, when I went to cause him to rest.
Jer 31:3 Yahweh appeared of old to me, saying, Yes, I have loved you with an everlasting love: therefore with loving kindness have I drawn you.
Jer 31:4 Again will I build you, and you shall be built, O virgin of Israel: again you shall be adorned with your tambourines, and shall go forth in the dances of those who make merry.
Jer 31:5 Again you shall plant vineyards on the mountains of Samaria; the planters shall plant, and shall enjoy its fruit.
Jer 31:6 For there shall be a day, that the watchmen on the hills of Ephraim shall cry, Arise you, and let us go up to Zion to Yahweh our God.
Jer 31:7 For thus says Yahweh, Sing with gladness for Jacob, and shout for the chief of the nations: publish you, praise you, and say, Yahweh, save your people, the remnant of Israel.
Jer 31:8 Behold, I will bring them from the north country, and gather them from the uttermost parts of the earth, and with them the blind and the lame, the woman with child and her who travails with child together: a great company shall they return here.
Jer 31:9 They shall come with weeping; and with petitions will I lead them: I will cause them to walk by rivers of waters, in a straight way in which they shall not stumble; for I am a father to Israel, and Ephraim is my firstborn.
Jer 31:10 Hear the word of Yahweh, you nations, and declare it in the islands afar off; and say, He who scattered Israel will gather him, and keep him, as shepherd does his flock.
Jer 31:11 For Yahweh has ransomed Jacob, and redeemed him from the hand of him who was stronger than he.
Jer 31:12 They shall come and sing in the height of Zion, and shall flow to the goodness of Yahweh, to the grain, and to the new wine, and to the oil, and to the young of the flock and of the herd: and their soul shall be as a watered garden; and they shall not sorrow any more at all.
Jer 31:13 Then shall the virgin rejoice in the dance, and the young men and the old together; for I will turn their mourning into joy, and will comfort them, and make them rejoice from their sorrow.
Jer 31:14 I will satiate the soul of the priests with fatness, and my people shall be satisfied with my goodness, says Yahweh.
Jer 31:15 Thus says Yahweh: A voice is heard in Ramah, lamentation, and bitter weeping, Rachel weeping for her children; she refuses to be comforted for her children, because they are no more.
Jer 31:16 Thus says Yahweh: Refrain your voice from weeping, and your eyes from tears; for your work shall be rewarded, says Yahweh; and they shall come again from the land of the enemy.
Jer 31:17 There is hope for your latter end, says Yahweh; and your children shall come again to their own border.
Jer 31:18 I have surely heard Ephraim bemoaning himself thus, You have chastised me, and I was chastised, as a calf unaccustomed to the yoke: turn you me, and I shall be turned; for you are Yahweh my God.
Jer 31:19 Surely after that I was turned, I repented; and after that I was instructed, I struck on my thigh: I was ashamed, yes, even confounded, because I did bear the reproach of my youth.
Jer 31:20 Is Ephraim my dear son? is he a darling child? for as often as I speak against him, I do earnestly remember him still: therefore my heart yearns for him; I will surely have mercy on him, says Yahweh.
Jer 31:21 Set up road signs, make guideposts; set your heart toward the highway, even the way by which you went: turn again, virgin of Israel, turn again to these your cities.
Jer 31:22 How long will you go here and there, you backsliding daughter? for Yahweh has created a new thing in the earth: a woman shall encompass a man.
Jer 31:23 Thus says Yahweh of Armies, the God of Israel, Yet again shall they use this speech in the land of Judah and in its cities, when I shall bring again their captivity: Yahweh bless you, habitation of righteousness, mountain of holiness.
Jer 31:24 Judah and all its cities shall dwell therein together, the farmers, and those who go about with flocks.
Jer 31:25 For I have satiated the weary soul, and every sorrowful soul have I replenished.
Jer 31:26 On this I awakened, and saw; and my sleep was sweet to me.
Jer 31:27 Behold, the days come, says Yahweh, that I will sow the house of Israel and the house of Judah with the seed of man, and with the seed of animal.
Jer 31:28 It shall happen that, like as I have watched over them to pluck up and to break down and to overthrow and to destroy and to afflict, so will I watch over them to build and to plant, says Yahweh.
Jer 31:29 In those days they shall say no more, The fathers have eaten sour grapes, and the children's teeth are set on edge.
Jer 31:30 But everyone shall die for his own iniquity: every man who eats the sour grapes, his teeth shall be set on edge.
Jer 31:31 Behold, the days come, says Yahweh, that I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah:
Jer 31:32 not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt; which my covenant they broke, although I was a husband to them, says Yahweh.
Jer 31:33 But this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, says Yahweh: I will put my law in their inward parts, and in their heart will I write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people:
Jer 31:34 and they shall teach no more every man his neighbor, and every man his brother, saying, Know Yahweh; for they shall all know me, from the least of them to the greatest of them, says Yahweh: for I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin will I remember no more.
Jer 31:35 Thus says Yahweh, who gives the sun for a light by day, and the ordinances of the moon and of the stars for a light by night, who stirs up the sea, so that its waves roar; Yahweh of Armies is his name:
Jer 31:36 If these ordinances depart from before me, says Yahweh, then the seed of Israel also shall cease from being a nation before me forever.
Jer 31:37 Thus says Yahweh: If heaven above can be measured, and the foundations of the earth searched out beneath, then will I also cast off all the seed of Israel for all that they have done, says Yahweh.
Jer 31:38 Behold, the days come, says Yahweh, that the city shall be built to Yahweh from the tower of Hananel to the gate of the corner.
Jer 31:39 The measuring line shall go out further straight onward to the hill Gareb, and shall turn about to Goah.
Jer 31:40 The whole valley of the dead bodies and of the ashes, and all the fields to the brook Kidron, to the corner of the horse gate toward the east, shall be holy to Yahweh; it shall not be plucked up, nor thrown down any more forever.
Jer 32:1 The word that came to Jeremiah from Yahweh in the tenth year of Zedekiah king of Judah, which was the eighteenth year of Nebuchadnezzar.
Jer 32:2 Now at that time the king of Babylon's army was besieging Jerusalem; and Jeremiah the prophet was shut up in the court of the guard, which was in the king of Judah's house.
Jer 32:3 For Zedekiah king of Judah had shut him up, saying, Why do you prophesy, and say, Thus says Yahweh, Behold, I will give this city into the hand of the king of Babylon, and he shall take it;
Jer 32:4 and Zedekiah king of Judah shall not escape out of the hand of the Chaldeans, but shall surely be delivered into the hand of the king of Babylon, and shall speak with him mouth to mouth, and his eyes shall see his eyes;
Jer 32:5 and he shall bring Zedekiah to Babylon, and there shall he be until I visit him, says Yahweh: though you fight with the Chaldeans, you shall not prosper?
Jer 32:6 Jeremiah said, The word of Yahweh came to me, saying,
Jer 32:7 Behold, Hanamel the son of Shallum your uncle shall come to you, saying, Buy you my field that is in Anathoth; for the right of redemption is yours to buy it.
Jer 32:8 So Hanamel my uncle's son came to me in the court of the guard according to the word of Yahweh, and said to me, Please buy my field that is in Anathoth, which is in the land of Benjamin; for the right of inheritance is yours, and the redemption is yours; buy it for yourself. Then I knew that this was the word of Yahweh.
Jer 32:9 I bought the field that was in Anathoth of Hanamel my uncle's son, and weighed him the money, even seventeen shekels of silver.
Jer 32:10 I subscribed the deed, and sealed it, and called witnesses, and weighed him the money in the balances.
Jer 32:11 So I took the deed of the purchase, both that which was sealed, containing the terms and conditions, and that which was open;
Jer 32:12 and I delivered the deed of the purchase to Baruch the son of Neriah, the son of Mahseiah, in the presence of Hanamel my uncle's son, and in the presence of the witnesses who subscribed the deed of the purchase, before all the Jews who sat in the court of the guard.
Jer 32:13 I commanded Baruch before them, saying,
Jer 32:14 Thus says Yahweh of Armies, the God of Israel: Take these deeds, this deed of the purchase which is sealed, and this deed which is open, and put them in an earthen vessel; that they may continue many days.
Jer 32:15 For thus says Yahweh of Armies, the God of Israel: Houses and fields and vineyards shall yet again be bought in this land.
Jer 32:16 Now after I had delivered the deed of the purchase to Baruch the son of Neriah, I prayed to Yahweh, saying,
Jer 32:17 Ah Lord Yahweh! behold, you have made the heavens and the earth by your great power and by your outstretched arm; there is nothing too hard for you,
Jer 32:18 who show loving kindness to thousands, and recompense the iniquity of the fathers into the bosom of their children after them; the great, the mighty God, Yahweh of Armies is his name;
Jer 32:19 great in counsel, and mighty in work; whose eyes are open on all the ways of the sons of men, to give everyone according to his ways, and according to the fruit of his doings:
Jer 32:20 who performed signs and wonders in the land of Egypt, even to this day, both in Israel and among other men; and made you a name, as in this day;
Jer 32:21 and brought forth your people Israel out of the land of Egypt with signs, and with wonders, and with a strong hand, and with an outstretched arm, and with great terror;
Jer 32:22 and gave them this land, which you did swear to their fathers to give them, a land flowing with milk and honey;
Jer 32:23 and they came in, and possessed it, but they didn't obey your voice, neither walked in your law; they have done nothing of all that you commanded them to do: therefore you have caused all this evil to come on them.
Jer 32:24 Behold, the mounds, they are come to the city to take it; and the city is given into the hand of the Chaldeans who fight against it, because of the sword, and of the famine, and of the pestilence; and what you have spoken has happened; and behold, you see it.
Jer 32:25 You have said to me, Lord Yahweh, Buy you the field for money, and call witnesses; whereas the city is given into the hand of the Chaldeans.
Jer 32:26 Then came the word of Yahweh to Jeremiah, saying,
Jer 32:27 Behold, I am Yahweh, the God of all flesh: is there anything too hard for me?
Jer 32:28 Therefore thus says Yahweh: Behold, I will give this city into the hand of the Chaldeans, and into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, and he shall take it:
Jer 32:29 and the Chaldeans, who fight against this city, shall come and set this city on fire, and burn it, with the houses, on whose roofs they have offered incense to Baal, and poured out drink offerings to other gods, to provoke me to anger.
Jer 32:30 For the children of Israel and the children of Judah have done only that which was evil in my sight from their youth; for the children of Israel have only provoked me to anger with the work of their hands, says Yahweh.
Jer 32:31 For this city has been to me a provocation of my anger and of my wrath from the day that they built it even to this day; that I should remove it from before my face,
Jer 32:32 because of all the evil of the children of Israel and of the children of Judah, which they have done to provoke me to anger, they, their kings, their princes, their priests, and their prophets, and the men of Judah, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem.
Jer 32:33 They have turned to me the back, and not the face: and though I taught them, rising up early and teaching them, yet they have not listened to receive instruction.
Jer 32:34 But they set their abominations in the house which is called by my name, to defile it.
Jer 32:35 They built the high places of Baal, which are in the valley of the son of Hinnom, to cause their sons and their daughters to pass through the fire to Molech; which I didn't command them, neither did it come into my mind, that they should do this abomination, to cause Judah to sin.
Jer 32:36 Now therefore thus says Yahweh, the God of Israel, concerning this city, about which you say, It is given into the hand of the king of Babylon by the sword, and by the famine, and by the pestilence:
Jer 32:37 Behold, I will gather them out of all the countries, where I have driven them in my anger, and in my wrath, and in great indignation; and I will bring them again to this place, and I will cause them to dwell safely:
Jer 32:38 and they shall be my people, and I will be their God:
Jer 32:39 and I will give them one heart and one way, that they may fear me forever, for the good of them, and of their children after them:
Jer 32:40 and I will make an everlasting covenant with them, that I will not turn away from following them, to do them good; and I will put my fear in their hearts, that they may not depart from me.
Jer 32:41 Yes, I will rejoice over them to do them good, and I will plant them in this land assuredly with my whole heart and with my whole soul.
Jer 32:42 For thus says Yahweh: Like as I have brought all this great evil on this people, so will I bring on them all the good that I have promised them.
Jer 32:43 Fields shall be bought in this land, about which you say, It is desolate, without man or animal; it is given into the hand of the Chaldeans.
Jer 32:44 Men shall buy fields for money, and subscribe the deeds, and seal them, and call witnesses, in the land of Benjamin, and in the places about Jerusalem, and in the cities of Judah, and in the cities of the hill country, and in the cities of the lowland, and in the cities of the South: for I will cause their captivity to return, says Yahweh.
Jer 33:1 Moreover the word of Yahweh came to Jeremiah the second time, while he was yet shut up in the court of the guard, saying,
Jer 33:2 Thus says Yahweh who does it, Yahweh who forms it to establish it; Yahweh is his name:
Jer 33:3 Call to me, and I will answer you, and will show you great things, and difficult, which you don't know.
Jer 33:4 For thus says Yahweh, the God of Israel, concerning the houses of this city, and concerning the houses of the kings of Judah, which are broken down to make a defense against the mounds and against the sword;
Jer 33:5 while men come to fight with the Chaldeans, and to fill them with the dead bodies of men, whom I have killed in my anger and in my wrath, and for all whose wickedness I have hid my face from this city:
Jer 33:6 Behold, I will bring it health and cure, and I will cure them; and I will reveal to them abundance of peace and truth.
Jer 33:7 I will cause the captivity of Judah and the captivity of Israel to return, and will build them, as at the first.
Jer 33:8 I will cleanse them from all their iniquity, by which they have sinned against me; and I will pardon all their iniquities, by which they have sinned against me, and by which they have transgressed against me.
Jer 33:9 This city shall be to me for a name of joy, for a praise and for a glory, before all the nations of the earth, which shall hear all the good that I do to them, and shall fear and tremble for all the good and for all the peace that I procure to it.
Jer 33:10 Thus says Yahweh: Yet again there shall be heard in this place, about which you say, It is waste, without man and without animal, even in the cities of Judah, and in the streets of Jerusalem, that are desolate, without man and without inhabitant and without animal,
Jer 33:11 the voice of joy and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride, the voice of those who say, Give thanks to Yahweh of Armies, for Yahweh is good, for his loving kindness endures forever; and of them who bring sacrifices of thanksgiving into the house of Yahweh. For I will cause the captivity of the land to return as at the first, says Yahweh.
Jer 33:12 Thus says Yahweh of Armies: Yet again shall there be in this place, which is waste, without man and without animal, and in all its cities, a habitation of shepherds causing their flocks to lie down.
Jer 33:13 In the cities of the hill country, in the cities of the lowland, and in the cities of the South, and in the land of Benjamin, and in the places about Jerusalem, and in the cities of Judah, shall the flocks again pass under the hands of him who numbers them, says Yahweh.
Jer 33:14 Behold, the days come, says Yahweh, that I will perform that good word which I have spoken concerning the house of Israel and concerning the house of Judah.
Jer 33:15 In those days, and at that time, will I cause a Branch of righteousness to grow up to David; and he shall execute justice and righteousness in the land.
Jer 33:16 In those days shall Judah be saved, and Jerusalem shall dwell safely; and this is the name by which she shall be called: Yahweh our righteousness.
Jer 33:17 For thus says Yahweh: David shall never want a man to sit on the throne of the house of Israel;
Jer 33:18 neither shall the priests the Levites want a man before me to offer burnt offerings, and to burn meal offerings, and to do sacrifice continually.
Jer 33:19 The word of Yahweh came to Jeremiah, saying,
Jer 33:20 Thus says Yahweh: If you can break my covenant of the day, and my covenant of the night, so that there shall not be day and night in their season;
Jer 33:21 then may also my covenant be broken with David my servant, that he shall not have a son to reign on his throne; and with the Levites the priests, my ministers.
Jer 33:22 As the army of the sky can't be numbered, neither the sand of the sea measured; so will I multiply the seed of David my servant, and the Levites who minister to me.
Jer 33:23 The word of Yahweh came to Jeremiah, saying,
Jer 33:24 Don't you consider what this people has spoken, saying, The two families which Yahweh did choose, he has cast them off? thus do they despise my people, that they should be no more a nation before them.
Jer 33:25 Thus says Yahweh: If my covenant of day and night fails, if I have not appointed the ordinances of heaven and earth;
Jer 33:26 then will I also cast away the seed of Jacob, and of David my servant, so that I will not take of his seed to be rulers over the seed of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob: for I will cause their captivity to return, and will have mercy on them.

Nov. 20
Hebrews 6

Heb 6:1 Therefore leaving the doctrine of the first principles of Christ, let us press on to perfection--not laying again a foundation of repentance from dead works, of faith toward God,
Heb 6:2 of the teaching of baptisms, of laying on of hands, of resurrection of the dead, and of eternal judgment.
Heb 6:3 This will we do, if God permits.
Heb 6:4 For concerning those who were once enlightened and tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Spirit,
Heb 6:5 and tasted the good word of God, and the powers of the age to come,
Heb 6:6 and then fell away, it is impossible to renew them again to repentance; seeing they crucify the Son of God for themselves again, and put him to open shame.
Heb 6:7 For the land which has drunk the rain that comes often on it, and brings forth a crop suitable for them for whose sake it is also tilled, receives blessing from God;
Heb 6:8 but if it bears thorns and thistles, it is rejected and near being cursed, whose end is to be burned.
Heb 6:9 But, beloved, we are persuaded of better things for you, and things that accompany salvation, even though we speak like this.
Heb 6:10 For God is not unrighteous, so as to forget your work and the labor of love which you showed toward his name, in that you served the saints, and still do serve them.
Heb 6:11 We desire that each one of you may show the same diligence to the fullness of hope even to the end,
Heb 6:12 that you won't be sluggish, but imitators of those who through faith and patience inherited the promises.
Heb 6:13 For when God made a promise to Abraham, since he could swear by none greater, he swore by himself,
Heb 6:14 saying, "Surely blessing I will bless you, and multiplying I will multiply you."
Heb 6:15 Thus, having patiently endured, he obtained the promise.
Heb 6:16 For men indeed swear by a greater one, and in every dispute of theirs the oath is final for confirmation.
Heb 6:17 In this way God, being determined to show more abundantly to the heirs of the promise the immutability of his counsel, interposed with an oath;
Heb 6:18 that by two immutable things, in which it is impossible for God to lie, we may have a strong encouragement, who have fled for refuge to take hold of the hope set before us.
Heb 6:19 This hope we have as an anchor of the soul, a hope both sure and steadfast and entering into that which is within the veil;
Heb 6:20 where as a forerunner Jesus entered for us, having become a high priest forever after the order of Melchizedek.