From Jim McGuiggan... Church Unity And Engines That Drive It

Church Unity And Engines That Drive It

Church unity has engines that drive it. Paul said, "I beseech you therefore" and the "therefore" points back to all the rich truth he has rehearsed. Because all that is true he thinks it naturally follows that they would eagerly do what's needed to be done to protect and nurture this wondrous unity. There's enough transforming and life-bringing truth in the earlier chapters to make us rise to our feet and become implacable enemies of chaos and derangement.

The sights and sounds of God as he works the destruction of walls and barriers can fill us with an unceasing desire to do the same. With the sweat, spit and blood streaking his face we watch him getting his shoulder against the foundation of a wall we built out of our sin a wall that stretched from Eden to Hell's gates. And if we asked him if it was a tremendous task he'd undertaken he would say it was beyond our imagining. And if we asked him if the cost to him would be great he'd nod and if we asked him why he was doing it he would tell us it's because his Father hates the wall and hates it because it keeps his beloved world from him and from one another.

Poet, Robert Frost (in "Mending Wall") went with a neighbour to check their adjoining wall. The friend thought good fences made good neighbours. I can see that in a world where we demand not only our own rights but the rights of others as well that that view makes sense. But for those who believe a better world has begun and will come in fullness one of these days the neighbour's view is still a limited and limiting one. Beyond the neighbour's common sense Frost still believed:

Something there is that doesn't love a wall,
That sends the frozen-ground-swell under it,
And spills the upper boulders in the sun;
And makes gaps even two can pass abreast.

Later, after smiling at the thought of telling the neighbour that fairies or elves keep wrecking the walls Frost muses to himself, "Something there is that doesn't love a wall/ That wants it down."

Whatever Frost had in mind the Christian would say, "Someone there is that doesn't love a wall/That wants it down." And as we watch the God who came to us in and as Jesus Christ push and strain to the point of exhaustion we finally hear the sound of the foundation cracking. It must have echoed all the way to Milton's city of Pandemonium and heaven must have thundered with applause. The thought that God thinks it is so important to have the walls down might easily inspire us to get our own shoulders to the foundation and give a prolonged shove. Because it matters to him it will come to matter deeply to us who love and are loved by him!

The Origin, Nature, and Destiny of the Soul [Part V] by Bert Thompson, Ph.D.


The Origin, Nature, and Destiny of the Soul [Part V]

by  Bert Thompson, Ph.D.

[EDITOR’S NOTE: Part I of this five-part series appeared in February. Part II appeard in the March issue. Part III appeared in May issue. Part IV appeared in the June issue. Part V follows below and continues, without introductory comments, where the first article ended.]


As one examines the various means through which men have attempted to circumvent the idea of the existence of hell, it is evident that there is no shortage of such theories. From universalism on the one hand to annihilationism on the other, men have done their best to disgorge the concept of eternal punishment from their minds. Some even have suggested that the only “hell” men experience is that of their own making here on Earth. Such a notion is standard fare in the vernacular of our day. For example, people speak of the fact that “war is hell.” They complain that, as they endure the vicissitudes of life, they are “going through hell.” John Benton noted:
When people’s personal lives go wrong, when they get caught up in bitterness and anger, when perhaps there is vicious language and even violence in the family home, we sometimes speak of people creating “hell on earth....” The psychological agony of guilt or the deep pain of bereavement are spoken of colloquially as being “like hell” (Benton, 1985, p. 42).
In his book, Hell and Salvation, Leslie Woodson observed: “The reference to man’s hard lot in life as ‘going through hell’ has become so commonplace that the modern mind has satisfied itself with the assumption that hell is nothing more” (1973, p. 30).
Believe whatever we will, say whatever we please: the simple fact is that none of these descriptions fits the biblical description of hell. And certainly, Jesus never spoke of hell in such a fashion. When He warned us to “fear Him who is able to destroy both soul and body in hell” (Matthew 10:28) and spoke of those who “shall go away into eternal punishment” (Matthew 25:46), He was not referring to some sort of temporary, earthly misery resulting from war, bereavement, or the like. Furthermore, the idea that “hell” is represented by whatever “pangs of guilt” we may experience from time to time during this life is a foolish assertion indeed. As one writer summarized the matter:
[I]t is a well-known fact that the more one sins the more callous he may become until he has “seared his conscience as with a hot iron” (II Tim. 4:2). If this theory is true then it follows that the righteous suffer greater punishment than the wicked. A wicked person can destroy his “hell” by searing his conscience. However, a righteous man will be sensitive to sin and will feel the pangs of guilt when he sins. And, the more devout he is the more sensitive he is about sin. Again, if this theory is true the worse a man is the less he will suffer. To escape hell one simply would plunge himself into unrestrained sin and harden his heart. Obviously this doctrine is false (Ealey, 1984, p. 22, emp. added).
The book of Job makes clear that, on occasion, the righteous do suffer terribly—while the wicked appear to prosper. At times, the psalmist even grew envious of the prosperity of the wicked, and wondered if it really was to his benefit to strive to be righteous (Psalm 73:2-5,12-14). Absolute justice is a rarity in the here and now, but is guaranteed at the Judgment yet to come (Matthew 25:31-46). We would do well to remember that the “Judge of all the Earth” will “do that which is right” (Genesis 18:25). We also should remember:
It is significant that the most solemn utterances on this subject fall from the lips of Christ himself. In the New Testament as a whole there is a deep reserve on the nature of the punishment of the lost, though of course the act of final judgment is prominent. But with Christ himself the statements are much more explicit (Carson, 1978, p. 14).
The urgent question then becomes: What did Christ and His inspired writers teach regarding hell? What does the Bible say on this extremely important topic?
The word “hell” (which occurs 23 times in the King James Version of the Bible) translates three different terms from the Greek New Testament—hades, tartaros, and géenna. While each has a different meaning, on occasion the KJV translators chose to translate each as “hell.” Was this an error on their part? Considering the way the word was used in 1611, no, it was not. Robert Taylor addressed this point when he wrote:
Hell in 1611 referred to the place of the unseen, the place that was beyond human eyesight, the place that was covered. In that day men who covered roofs were called hellers—they put coverings on buildings or covered them (1985, p. 160).
According to Brown, “this was a correct rendering in 1611 because the word ‘Hell’ in Elizabethan English also meant an unseen place (e.g., Matthew 16:18; Luke 16:23; Acts 2:27,31; et al.)” [1999, p. 171].
The actual origin of the Greek hades (transliterated as hades in the English) is not well known. Some scholars have suggested that it derives from two roots: a (a negative prefix depicting “not”) and idein (a word meaning “to see”). Thus, according to Thayer’s Greek-English Lexicon, hades would evoke the idea of “not to be seen” (1958, p. 11). W.E. Vine advocated the view that hades meant “all receiving” (1991, p. 368). The exact meaning of the term, however, must be determined via an examination of the context in which it is used. Hades occurs eleven times in the Greek New Testament. On ten occasions (Matthew 11:23; 16:18; Luke 10:15; 16:23; Acts 2:27,31; Revelation 1:18; 6:8; 20:13-14) the KJV translates it as “hell.” [In such occurrences, most recent versions (e.g., the ASV, NKJV, et al.) transliterate the Greek as “hades.”] Once (1 Corinthians 15:55), hades is translated as “grave.”
The Greek tartaros is the noun (translated into English via the Latin tartarus, cf. ASV footnote on 2 Peter 2:4) from which the verb tartarosas (aorist participle of tartaroo) derives. Ralph Earle observed that the term signified “the dark abode of the wicked dead” (1986, p. 447). Originally, it seems to have carried the idea of a “deep place”—a connotation that it retains in both Job 40:15 and 41:23 in the Septuagint. The Greek poet, Homer, wrote in his Iliad of “dark Tartarus...the deepest pit” (8.13). The word tartaros occurs only once in the Greek New Testament (2 Peter 2:4), where it is translated “hell” (“God spared not angels...but cast them down to hell”). In writing of this singular occurrence, R.C.H. Lenski remarked: “The verb does not occur elsewhere in the Bible; it is seldom found in other writings. The noun ‘Tartarus’ occurs three times in the LXX [Septuagint—BT], but there is no corresponding Hebrew term. The word is of pagan origin...” (1966, p. 310).
The Greek géenna is the predominant term used in the New Testament to depict hell. The word “represents the Aramaic expression ge hinnom, meaning ‘Valley of Hinnom’ (Neh. 11:30; cf. Josh. 15:8), and for this reason the word is commonly transliterated into English as Gehenna ” (Workman, 1993, p. 496). Several sites have been suggested for the “valley of Hinnom” (or Valley of the Son of Hinnom, Vos, 1956, 2:1183; Earle, 1986, p. 447), but most authorities now believe that it was located on the south side of Jerusalem. In the Bible, the valley is mentioned first in Joshua 15:8. Centuries later, the apostates of Judah used it as a place to offer child sacrifices to the pagan god Molech (2 Chronicles 28:3; 33:6). When good king Josiah ascended the throne and overthrew the practice of idolatry, he “defiled” the place called Topheth (a name signifying something to be abhorred and spit upon) in the Valley of Hinnom (2 Kings 23:10). The valley came to be reviled for the evil that had occurred there, and eventually turned into a smoldering garbage dump that served the entire city of Jerusalem. Years later, it even was used as a potter’s field (as is evident from the many rock tombs that are known to rest at its lower end). A perpetual fire burned, to prevent the spread of contagion, and worms and maggots performed their unseen, unsavory tasks amidst the debris and decay (see Morey, 1984, p. 87; cf. Foster, 1971, pp. 764-765). J. Arthur Hoyles graphically described the grisly goings-on:
Here the fires burned day and night, destroying the garbage and putrefying the atmosphere from the smell of rotten flesh or decaying vegetation. In time of war the carcasses of vanquished enemies might mingle with the refuse, thus furnishing patriotic writers with a clue as to the destiny of their own persecutors. They were destined to be destroyed in the fires that were never quenched (1957, p. 118).
By the second century B.C., the term géenna began to appear in Jewish literature as a symbolic designation for the place of unending, eternal punishment of the wicked dead. As Gary Workman noted:
It is natural, therefore, that when the New Testament opens Gehenna would be the primary term for hell. It is so recorded eleven times from the lips of Jesus and is also used once by James. It was not to the literal Valley of Hinnom outside Jerusalem that they referred, nor anything similar to it, but rather to “the Gehenna of fire” in a realm beyond the grave. Both Jewish and Christian historians confirm that the prevailing view of Jews at the time of Christ (except the Sadducees who denied even the resurrection) was that of eternal punishment for the wicked. And since Jesus never attempted to correct Pharisaic thinking on the duration of Gehenna, as he did with eschatological errors of the Sadducees (Matt. 22:29), this is weighty evidence for the meaning he intended to convey by his use of the term (1993, pp. 496-497).
The word géenna occurs twelve times in the Greek New Testament. In nine of these (Matthew 5:29-30; 10:28; 23:15,33; Mark 9:43,45; Luke 12:5; James 3:6—KJV), it is translated as “hell.” Three times (Matthew 5:22; 18:9; Mark 9:47—KJV) it is translated as “hell fire.” David Stevens has pointed out: “It is also significant that eleven of the twelve times that the word gehenna is used, it is used by the Lord himself! Thus, it is evident that what we know about gehenna, we learn from the Lord himself ” (1991, 7[3]:21).
There exists a diversity of views regarding the usage of these terms in Scripture. For example, some scholars have suggested that hades (or the Old Testament sheol) is a generic term for the abode of the dead, whether good or evil, while they await the final Judgment—a view with which I concur. Thus, hades is composed of two compartments: (1) the abode of the spirits of the righteous (known either as paradise—Luke 23:43, or Abraham’s bosom—Luke 16:22); and (2) the abode of the spirits of the wicked (Tartarus—2 Peter 2:4, or “torment”—Luke 16:23) [Davidson, 1970, p. 694; Denham, 1998, p. 609; Harris, et al., 1980, 2:892; Jackson, 1998, 33[9]:34-35; Stevens, 1991, 7[3]:21; Thayer, 1958, p. 11; Zerr, 1952, p. 17].
On the other hand, some scholars suggest that hades should not be used as an umbrella term to refer to the general abode of the dead. Rather, they suggest that after death, there exists: (1) the grave for the physical body (sheol, physical abyss, physical hades); (2) the abode of the spirits of the righteous (paradise, Abraham’s bosom, the “third heaven”); and (3) the abode of the spirits of the wicked (Tartarus, spiritual abyss, spiritual hades) [see McCord, 1979, 96[4]:6]. Still others have advocated the belief that gehenna, tartarus, and hades are synonyms representing exactly the same thing—“the place of all the damned” (Lenski, 1966, p. 310).
There is one thing, however, on which advocates of each position agree wholeheartedly, and on which the biblical text is crystal clear: after death and the Judgment, gehenna (hell) will be the ultimate, final abode of the spirits of the wicked. But what, exactly, will hell be like?

Hell is a Place of Punishment for Bodies
and Souls of the Disobedient Wicked

The Scriptures speak with clarity and precision on the topic of hell as a place of punishment appointed for the disobedient wicked. The psalmist wrote by inspiration: “The wicked shall be turned into hell, and all the nations that forget God” (9:17). Jesus taught that at Judgment, the wicked will “depart” into punishment “prepared for the devil and his angels” (Matthew 25:41; cf. Matthew 25:46 where Jesus employed the Greek term kolasis, which means punishment, torment, suffering, and chastisement [see Brown, 1999, p. 173]). When John described those who would join the devil in hell’s horrible abyss, he referred to “the fearful, and unbelieving, and abominable, and murderers, and fornicators, and sorcerers, and idolaters, and liars” (Revelation 21:8). Paul said that those who inhabit hell with Satan will be those who “know not God” and who “obey not the gospel of Christ” (2 Thessalonians 1:7-9).
In discussing gehenna in the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Geerhardus Vos addressed the verses that deal with hell, and then stated: “In all of these it designates the place of eternal punishment of the wicked, generally in connection with the final judgment.... Both body and soul are cast into it” (1956, 2:1183). E.M. Zerr commented: “Gehenna is the lake of unquenchable fire into which the whole being of the wicked (body, soul and spirit) will be cast after the judgment” (1952, p. 17). Hell is a place of contempt and shame (Daniel 12:2), as well as torment and anguish (Luke 16:23-24). It is a place of “outer darkness” (Matthew 8:12; 25:30) where punishment and suffering occur (Matthew 25:46; Revelation 14:11) that will involve both body and soul (Matthew 10:28).

Hell is a Place of Conscious
Sorrow, Torment, Pain, and Suffering

From such vivid descriptions, it is quite evident that the wicked will be in a state of consciousness. In fact, John wrote that Satan and his human cohorts would be “cast alive into the lake of fire that burneth with brimstone” (Revelation 19:20). That is to say, the Bible definitely teaches “the persistence of personality after physical death” (Warren, 1992, p. 32, emp. added). When Christ described hell as a place of “weeping and gnashing of teeth” (Matthew 22:13), He overtly emphasized the fact that its inhabitants will endure conscious sorrow. Hell is a place of such terrible suffering (2 Thessalonians 1:9) that the apostle John referred to it as the “second death” (Revelation 20:14-15; 21:8). Benton summarized this well:
Hell...is to be shut out of God’s presence, cut off from all that is good and wholesome. It is to be cut off from all love, all peace, all joy for ever. Jesus explains that once people realize this, once they realize what they have missed, the effect upon them will be devastating. “There will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.” It is an unspeakably sombre picture. Men seldom weep, but in hell men weep uncontrollably. Jesus speaks of the place being totally characterized by tears.... In hell people do not just weep; they gnash their teeth. Having been shut out of the presence of God into the eternal blackness, permanently deprived of all that is wholesome and good, in bitter anger men and women grind their teeth in speechless rage. As they realize that once and for all, “I’ve been shut out!” they are overcome with a sense of eternal loss which leads to a depth of anger and fury that they find impossible to express in words (1985, pp. 47-48).
In addressing the consciousness of those in hell, Wayne Jackson wrote:
Punishment implies consciousness. It would be absurd to describe those who no longer exist as being “punished.” The wicked will be “tormented” with the fire of Gehenna (cf. Rev. 14:10-11). Torment certainly implies awareness (cf. Rev. 9:5; 11:10) [1998, 33[9]:35, emp. in orig.].
And torment there will be! When, in Revelation 20:10, John wrote of this torment, he employed the Greek word basanisthesontai, the root of which (basanizo) literally means “to torment, to be harassed, to torture, to vex with grievous pains” (Thayer, 1958, p. 96; cf. Matthew 8:6 regarding the one “tormented” [basanizomenos] with palsy).
Previously, John spoke of those who inhabit hell as experiencing the “wine of the wrath of God, which is prepared unmixed in the cup of his anger” (Revelation 14:10). Imagine—experiencing the undiluted wrath of God! In the next verse, John lamented: “The smoke of their torment [notice: not the smoke of their annihilation!—BT] goeth up for ever and ever.” Little wonder, then, that the writer of Hebrews referred to the second death as “a sorer punishment” than any mere physical death (10:29).

Hell is Eternal in Nature

Surely, one of the most horrific aspects of hell is its eternal nature. Throughout the Bible, words like “eternal,” “forever and forever,” “unquenchable,” and “everlasting” are used repeatedly to describe the duration of the punishment that God will inflict upon the wicked. As the “Judge of all the earth,” God alone has the right to determine the nature and duration of whatever punishment is due to the wicked. And He has decreed that such punishment will be eternal in nature (Matthew 25:46; Revelation 14:10-11). That may not agree with our mind-set, or appeal to our sensitivities, but it is God’s word on the matter nevertheless.
I once heard of a newspaper in Detroit, Michigan that ran a story about a man who (ironically) had been transferred from Hell, Michigan to a city by the name of Paradise. The news headline read: “Man Leaves Hell for Paradise!” Such an event might occur in this lifetime, but you may rest assured that it will not happen in the next (Luke 16:19-31). When Dante, in his Inferno, depicted the sign hanging over hell’s door as reading, “Abandon all hope, ye who enter here,” he did not overstate the case.
Some, of course, have objected to the concept of eternal punishment because of such passages as Mark 12:9 (where Jesus foretold in a parable that God would “destroy” those who killed His beloved Son) and Matthew 10:28 (where Jesus told His disciples to fear Him who was able to “destroy” both soul and body in hell). But the belief that the soul will be annihilated is based, not on an understanding, but a misunderstanding, of the passages in question. In addition to referring to destruction, the Greek term apollumi employed in these two portions of Scripture (and approximately 90 more times elsewhere in the New Testament), also can mean “lose,” “perish,” or “lost.” As Vine pointed out: “The idea is not extinction but ruin, loss, not of being, but of well-being” (1991, p. 211). Thayer defined apollumi as it appears in Matthew 10:28 as “to devote or give over to eternal misery” (1958, p. 64).
Granted, it would be more comforting for the wicked to believe that at the end of this life they simply will be punished “for a little while” and then “drop out of existence,” rather than to have to face the stark realization of an eternal punishment in the fires of hell. But comforting or not, the question must be asked: Is such a belief in compliance with biblical teaching on this subject?
While it is true that, on rare occasions in Scripture, words such as “everlasting” and “forever” may be used in a non-literal sense (i.e., the thing being discussed is not strictly eternal—e.g. Exodus 12:14 and Numbers 25:13), they never are used in such a sense when describing hell. The word aionios occurs some seventy times in the Greek New Testament where it is translated by such English terms as “eternal” or “everlasting” (e.g., “eternal fire,” Matthew 18:8, 25:41, Jude 7; “eternal punishment,” Matthew 25:46; “eternal destruction,” 2 Thessalonians 1:9; and “eternal judgment,” Hebrews 6:2). In his Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words, Vine wrote of aionios:
Moreover, it is used of persons and things which are in their nature, endless, as, e.g., of God (Rom 16:26); of His power (I Tim. 6:16), and of Him (I Peter 5:10); of the Holy Spirit (Heb. 9:14); of the redemption effected by Christ (Heb. 9:12), and of the consequent salvation of men (5:9);...and of the resurrection body (II Cor. 5:1), elsewhere said to be “immortal” (I Cor. 15:53), in which that life will be finally realized (Matt. 25:46; Titus 1:2) [1966, p. 43].
Thayer stated that aionios means “without end, never to cease, everlasting” (1958, p. 112).
In his inspired discussion about the coming fate of false teachers, Jude assured the first-century Christians that those who perverted the truth would be punished. To illustrate his point, he reached back to Sodom and Gomorrah (Genesis 19:24-25) as an example of those “suffering the punishment of eternal fire” (v. 7). G.L. Lawlor commented on Jude’s illustration as follows:
Jude says these cities, their sin, and their terrible destruction lie before us as an example, deigma. Better, perhaps, the word might be rendered “sign,” that is, to show us the meaning and significance of something, i.e., this awful sin and God’s catastrophic judgment. The cities were destroyed by fire and brimstone, but the ungodly inhabitants are even now undergoing the awful torment of everlasting punishment. These cities are an example, they lie before us as a sign, to show the certainty of divine punishment upon an apostasy of life dreadful almost beyond description (1972, p. 70).
But what did Lawlor mean when he said that the inhabitants of Sodom and Gomorrah “are even now undergoing the awful torment of everlasting punishment”? His point is this. The Greek hupechousai (rendered “suffering”) is a present participle and “shows that they were enduring ‘eternal fire’ even as Jude wrote! The primary force of the present tense in the Greek, especially as connected with a participial construction as here, is that of continuous action” (Denham, 1998, p. 607, emp. added). Greek scholar M.R. Vincent wrote regarding this point: “The participle is present, indicating that they are suffering to this day the punishment which came upon them in Lot’s time” (1946, 1:340). Brown remarked: “This grammatical construction simply means that Jude is saying that the inhabitants of the two cities not only suffered, but they continue to suffer. What a warning to those in rebellion to God!” (1999, p. 176).
The Jews (and Jewish Christians) of Jude’s day would have understood that point because they knew and understood the significance attached to gehenna. Alfred Edersheim, who stood without equal as a Hebrew/inter-testamental period scholar, devoted an entire chapter of his monumental work, The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, to the rabbinical and New Testament evidence on the subject of eternal punishment. His conclusion was that the Jews in the time of Christ understood gehenna as referring to a place of eternal, conscious torment for the wicked (1971, pp. 791-796). Eminent religious historian Phillip Schaff (1970, 2:136) reported that, except for the Sadducees (who believed in neither a resurrection for the righteous nor the wicked), the Jews of Christ’s day consistently held to a view of personal, eternal, conscious punishment—a truly important point for the following reason.
During His ministry, Jesus was quite outspoken against those things that were wrong or misleading. In Matthew 22:23-33 He chastised the Sadducees severely regarding their erroneous views about the lack of a future existence. Yet, as noted earlier, He never opposed the Jewish concept of eternal punishment of the soul. Had the Jews been in error regarding the afterlife, surely the Son of God would have corrected them in as public a manner as He did on so many other points of Scripture. Instead, He repeatedly reaffirmed such a concept. His silence speaks volumes!

No Hell...No Heaven

When Christ spoke to the people of His day about the ultimate fate of humanity in eternity, He stated that the wicked would “go away into everlasting (aionios) punishment, but the righteous into eternal (aionios) life.” As Denham has pointed out: “The word rendered ‘eternal’ is the same Greek word aionios, rendered earlier as ‘everlasting’ ” (1998, p. 615). The Lord’s double use of the term aionios is critically important in this discussion. J.W. McGarvey addressed this fact when he wrote:
Whatever this Greek word means in the last clause of this sentence it means in the first; for it is an invariable rule of exegesis, that a word when thus repeated in the same sentence must be understood in the same sense, unless the context or the nature of the subject shows that there is a play on the word. There is certainly nothing in the context to indicate the slightest difference in meaning, nor can we know by the nature of the subject that the punishment spoken of is less durable than the life. It is admitted on all hands that in the expression “everlasting life” the term has its full force, and therefore it is idle and preposterous to deny that it has the same force in the expression “everlasting punishment.” The everlasting punishment is the same as the everlasting fire of verse 41. The punishment is by fire, and its duration is eternal (1875, pp. 221-222).
There can be absolutely no doubt that the Lord intended to teach two specific states of conscious future existence. In fact, as James Orr observed in the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: “The whole doctrine of the future judgment in the NT presupposes survival after death” (1956, 4:2502). Writing in The New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology, Joachim Guhrt stated that since “God’s life never ends, i.e., that everything belonging to him can also never come to an end,...even perdition must be called aionios, eternal” (1978, pp. 830,833). In this same vein, Guy N. Woods commented: “Our heavenly Father is described as ‘the everlasting God.’ (Romans 16:26.) Hell will be the inhabitation of the wicked so long as God himself exists” (1985, 127[9]:278). George Ladd thus noted:
The adjective aionios does not of itself carry a qualitative significance, designating a life that is different in kind from human life. The primary meaning of the word is temporal. It is used of fire, punishment, sin, and places of abode; and these uses designate unending duration (1974, p. 255, emp. added).
But that is only a portion of the Lord’s message. Orr went on to observe: “Here precisely the same word is applied to the punishment of the wicked as to the blessedness of the righteous.... Whatever else the term includes, it connotes duration” (1956, 4:2502, emp. added). When he discussed the definition and meaning of the word aionios in The Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, Herman Sasse noted that when the word is used “as a term for eschatological expectation,” if it conveys “eternity” for the rewards of the righteous it also must convey “the sense of ‘unceasing’ or ‘endless’ ” (1964, 1:209). Therefore, “however long then the righteous will experience the blessedness of eternal life is just how long the wicked will suffer everlasting punishment...” (Denham, 1998, p. 615, emp. in orig.).
In his intriguing book, Hell on Trial—The Case for Eternal Punishment—Robert Peterson wrote the following under the chapter titled “The Case for Eternal Punishment”: “Jesus places the fates of the wicked and the righteous side by side.... The parallelism makes the meaning unmistakable: the punishment of the ungodly and the bliss of the godly both last forever” (1995, p. 196). Gary Workman spoke to this very point when he observed:
New Testament writers used aion and aionios 141 times when speaking of eternity to convey the idea of unceasing, endless, and perpetual. If the word means “without end” when applied to the future blessedness of the saved, it must also mean “without end” when describing the future punishment of the lost (1992, 23[3]:33).
Benton elaborated:
The same word aionios, “eternal,” is used to describe both heaven and hell. If we take the position that hell is capable of termination then, to be consistent, we must believe that the same is true of heaven. But, from the rest of the Bible, that is plainly not the case. Heaven is for ever. We must stay with the plain meaning of the word “eternal.” Both heaven and hell are without end (1985, p. 55, emp. in orig.).
These writers are correct. The fact that Christ made a special point of repeating aionios in the same sentence requires that we “stay with the plain meaning of the word.” Hoekema therefore concluded:
The word aionios means without end when applied to the future blessedness of believers. It must follow, unless clear evidence is given to the contrary, that this word also means without end when used to describe the future punishment of the lost.... It follows, then, that the punishment which the lost will suffer after this life will be as endless as the future happiness of the people of God (1982, p. 270).
Those who are willing to accept Christ’s teaching on heaven should have no trouble accepting His teaching on hell. Yet some do. Their refusal to accept biblical teaching on the eternal nature of the wicked, however, is not without consequences. John Benton accurately summarized the situation.
Disregarding the doctrine of eternal damnation tends to make us doubt eternal salvation.... Though Revelation 21-22 proclaims the final fate of the wicked—existence in the lake of fire (21:8) and exclusion from the city of God (22:15)—these chapters trumpet more loudly the final destiny of the redeemed (1995, p. 217).
But does it really matter what a person believes in this regard? Wayne Jackson answered that question when he wrote: “Those who contend that the wicked will be annihilated are in error. But is the issue one of importance? Yes. Any theory of divine retribution which undermines the full consequences of rebelling against God has to be most dangerous” (1998, 33[9]:35, emp. added).
Since both heaven and hell are described via the same, exact terminology in Scripture, once the instruction of the Lord and His inspired writers on the subject of an eternal hell has been abandoned, how long will it be before the Bible’s instruction on the eternal nature of heaven likewise is abandoned? Have we not witnessed the effects of this type of thinking before? Those who started out to compromise the first chapter of Genesis eventually compromised other important facets of biblical doctrine as well (e.g., biblical miracles, Christ’s virgin birth, the Lord’s bodily resurrection, etc.). For many, rejecting the biblical concept of the eternality of hell may well represent the first steps on the slippery slope that eventually will lead to compromise in other areas of Scripture. Surely it would be better by far to echo the heartfelt sentiments of Joshua when he told the Israelites that while they were free to believe whatever they wished, or to act in any manner they chose, “as for me and my house, we will serve Jehovah” (Joshua 24:15).


The latter part of this series has dealt at length with the concept of the souls of the wicked inhabiting an eternal hell, but has had relatively little to say about the concept of the souls of the righteous inhabiting an eternal heaven. Actually, this should not be all that surprising. The very idea of hell has met with violent opposition—for good reason. No one wants to go to hell. Thus, the Good Book’s teaching on heaven is accepted far more readily than its teaching on hell.
The simple fact of the matter, however, is that God created man as a dichotomous being who consists of both a body and a soul. When eventually each of us has “shuffled off this mortal coil” (to quote Shakespeare), our immortal soul will return to God Who gave it (Ecclesiastes 12:7). Infidelity, of course, always has objected strenuously to the concept of “life after death.” The very idea seems preposterous to unbelievers—just as it did to King Agrippa in the first century when Paul asked the pagan monarch: “Why is it judged incredible with you, if God doth raise the dead?” (Acts 26:28).
Indeed, why should it be difficult to believe that an omnipotent God could raise the dead? For the God Who created the Universe and everything within it in six days, and Who upholds “all things by the word of his power” (Hebrews 1:3), how difficult could it be to raise the dead? As Blaise Pascal, the famed French philosopher once remarked: “I see no greater difficulty in believing the resurrection of the dead than the creation of the world. Is it less easy to reproduce a human body than it was to produce it at first?” (as quoted in Otten, 1988, p. 40).
Writing in the book of Revelation, the apostle John described in unforgettable language the destiny of the righteous when this world finally comes to an end: “Behold, the dwelling of God is with men. He will dwell with them, and they shall be his people, and God himself will be with them” (21:3, RSV). Thousands of years earlier, God’s pledge to Abraham had foreshadowed just such a covenant relationship. Moses recorded: “And I will establish My covenant between Me and you and your descendants after you in their generations, for an everlasting covenant, to be God to you and your descendants after you” (Genesis 17:7, NKJV). Paul spoke of the fact that “if ye are Christ’s, then are ye Abraham’s seed, heirs according to promise” (Galatians 3:29), and referred to those who serve Christ faithfully as “heirs according to the hope of eternal life” (Titus 3:7). James rejoiced in the fact that those who were “rich in faith” would be “heirs of the kingdom which he promised to them that love him” (James 2:5). The writer of the book of Hebrews spoke of Christ as having become “unto all them that obey him, the author of eternal salvation” (5:9).
No doubt that is exactly what John had in mind when he went on to say in Revelation 21: “He that overcometh shall inherit these things; and I will be his God, and he shall be my son” (vs. 7). God will be Father to the man or woman who demonstrates faith in Him, perseveres to the end, and lives in humble obedience to His divine will. Such is the promise of sonship to believers. God will welcome those who believe in and obey His Son as “heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ” (Romans 8:17), and will—according to His promise—bestow upon them all the riches and blessings of heaven.
In the next verse, however, John went on to paint a picture of stark contrast when he described the ultimate end of the impenitent wicked:
But for the fearful, and unbelieving, and abominable, and murderers, and fornicators, and sorcerers, and idolaters, and all liars, their part shall be in the lake that burneth with fire and brimstone; which is the second death (Revelation 21:8).
What diametric alternatives—enjoying eternal happiness as a son or daughter of God, or enduring eternal pain in “the lake that burneth with fire and brimstone”!
The good news, of course, is that no one has to go to hell. When Christ was ransomed on our behalf (1 Timothy 2:4), He paid a debt He did not owe, and a debt we could not pay, so that we could live forever in the presence of our Creator (Matthew 25:46). God takes no joy at the death of the wicked (Ezekiel 18:23; 33:11). Nor should we. As one writer eloquently stated it: “No one who has been snatched from the burning himself can feel anything but compassion and concern for the lost” (Woodson, 1973, p. 32).
As we begin to comprehend both the hideous nature of our sin, and the alienation from God resulting from it, we not only should exhibit a fervent desire to save ourselves “from this crooked generation” (Acts 2:40), but we also should feel just as passionate about warning the wicked of their impending doom (Ezekiel 3:17-19).


Benton, John (1985), How Can a God of Love Send People to Hell? (Welwyn, Hertfordshire, England: Evangelical Press).
Brown, David P. (1999), “Annihilation in Hell Error,” God Hath Spoken Affirming Truth and Reproving Error, ed. Curtis Cates (Memphis, TN: Memphis School of Preaching), pp. 161-178.
Carson, Herbert M. (1978), The Biblical Doctrine of Eternal Punishment, Carey Conference Paper.
Davidson, Benjamin (1970 reprint), The Analytical Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan).
Denham, Daniel (1998), “Will the Wicked Really be Punished with Eternal Fire?,” Studies in 1,2 Peter and Jude, ed. Dub McClish (Denton, TX: Valid Publications), pp. 601-627.
Ealey, Gary (1984), “The Biblical Doctrine of Hell,” The Biblical Doctrine of Last Things, ed. David L. Lipe (Kosciusko, MS: Magnolia Bible College), pp. 20-28.
Earle, Ralph (1986), Word Meanings in the New Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker).
Edersheim, Alfred (1971 reprint), The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans).
Foster, R.C. (1971 reprint), Studies in the Life of Christ (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker).
Guhrt, Joachim (1978), “Time,” The New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology, ed. Colin Brown (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan).
Harris, R.L., G.L. Archer, Jr., and B.K. Waltke (1980), Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament (Chicago, IL: Moody).
Hoekema, Anthony (1982), The Bible and the Future (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans).
Hoekema, Anthony (1986), Created in God’s Image (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans).
Hoyles, Arthur J. (1957), “The Punishment of the Wicked after Death,” London Quarterly and Holborn Review, April.
Jackson, Wayne (1998), “The Use of ‘Hell’ in the New Testament,” Christian Courier, 33[9]:34-35, January.
Ladd, George Eldon (1974), A Theology of the New Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans).
Lawlor, George Lawrence (1972), The Epistle of Jude (Nutley, NJ: Presbyterian and Reformed).
Lenski, R.C.H. (1966), The Interpretation of I and II Epistles of Peter, the Three Epistles of John, and the Epistle of Jude (Minneapolis, MN: Augsburg).
McCord, Hugo (1979), “The State of the Dead,” Firm Foundation, 96[4]:6,12, January 23.
McGarvey, J.W. (1875), Commentary on Matthew-Mark (Delight, AR: Gospel Light), reprint.
Morey, Robert A. (1984), Death and the Afterlife (Minneapolis, MN: Bethany House).
Orr, James (1956), “Punishment,” International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, ed. James Orr (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans), 4:2501-2504.
Otten, Herman J. (1988), Baal or God? (New Haven, MO: Christian News Publications), revised edition.
Peterson, Robert A. (1995), Hell on Trial—the Case for Eternal Punishment (Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R).
Sasse, Herman (1964), “Aion, Aionios,” Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, ed. Gerhard Kittel (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans), 1:208-209.
Schaff, Phillip (1970 reprint), History of the Christian Church (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans).
Stevens, David (1991), “The Place of Eternal Punishment,” Therefore Stand, 7[3]:21-22, March.
Taylor, Robert R., Jr. (1985), Challenging Dangers of Modern Versions (Ripley, TN: Taylor Publications).
Thayer, J.H. (1958 reprint), A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark).
Vincent, M.R. (1946), Word Studies in the New Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans).
Vine, W.E. (1966), An Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words (Westwood, NJ: Revell).
Vine, W.E. (1991), Amplified Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words (Iowa Falls, IA: World).
Vos, Geerhardus (1956), “Gehenna,” International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, ed. James Orr (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans), 2:1183.
Warren, Thomas B. (1992), Immortality—All of Us Will be Somewhere Forever (Moore, OK: National Christian Press).
Woods, Guy N. (1985), “Do the Scriptures Teach that the Wicked are to Experience Endless Suffering in Hell?,” Gospel Advocate, 127[9]:278, May 2.
Woodson, Leslie (1973), Hell and Salvation (Old Tappan, NJ: Revell).
Workman, Gary (1992), “Is There An Eternal Hell?,” Spiritual Sword, 23[3]:30-34, April.
Workman, Gary (1993), “Will the Wicked Be Eternally Punished or Annihilated?,” Whatever Happened to Heaven and Hell?, ed. Terry E. Hightower (San Antonio, TX: Shenandoah Church of Christ), pp. 495-503.
Zerr, E.M. (1952), Bible Commentary (Bowling Green, KY: Guardian of Truth Foundation).

From Mark Copeland... The Renewed Mind (Romans 12:16)

                      "THE EPISTLE TO THE ROMANS"

                        The Renewed Mind (12:16)


1. The Christian life is to be a transformed life...
   a. One that does not conform to things of this world - Ro 12:2a
   b. But seeks to prove (demonstrate) that God's way is better - Ro 12:2b

2. The Christian life requires a renewing of our minds...
   a. In which we learn what is God's will - Ro 12:2b
   b. In turn making it possible to be transformed - Ro 12:2a

[What are some indications of a renewed mind?  In Ro 12:16, we find the
mind or attitude that is to be found among Christians.  Note first that
there is to be...]


      1. The NKJV reads "Be of the same mind toward one another..."
      2. Literally, "thinking the same thing" - Robertson's Word
      3. An exhortation frequently commanded of Christians
         a. The Christians in Rome - Ro 15:5
         b. The Christians in Corinth - 1Co 1:10
         c. The Christians in Philippi - Php 1:27; 2:2-3; 3:16; 4:2
         d. The Christians in Asia - 1Pe 3:8
      -- As Christians are renewed in mind, they will begin having
         similar goals, aims, views

      1. Seek the mind of Christ - cf. Php 2:5
         a. Each should strive to develop and emulate the mindset of
         b. The more we become like Him, the sooner we become "of the
            same mind"
      2. Set our minds on things above - cf. Col 3:1-2
         a. Each should focus their attention more on spiritual matters
         b. Distracted by worldly matters and human opinions, will
            destroy oneness of mind
      -- Where there is not unity, someone (perhaps everyone) is not
         setting their mind on Christ and things above!

[As we return to our text (Ro 12:16), we find that another indication of
"The Renewed Mind" is...]


      1. "Do not set your mind on high things" (NKJV); other
         a. "Do not be haughty" (RSV)
         b. "Do not be too ambitious" (Goodspeed)
         c. "Do not aspire to eminence" (Berkley)
         d. "Don't become snobbish" (Phillips)
      2. "but associate with the humble" (NKJV); other translations:
         a. "but associate with the lowly" (RSV)
         b. "but accept humble tasks" (Goodspeed)
         c. "but willingly adjust yourselves to humble situations"
         d. "but take a real interest in ordinary people" (Phillips)
      -- A renewed mind makes a concerted effort not to be snobbish or
         ambitious, and is willing to be associated with humble tasks
         and lowly people

      1. By taking heed to what we learn from:
         a. The attitude of David - Ps 131:1-2
         b. The warning to Jeremiah - Jer 45:5
         c. The teaching of Jesus - Lk 22:24-27
      2. By noting what we learn from:
         a. The example of Jesus - Php 2:5-8
         b. The teaching of James - Jm 2:1-5
      -- When one has the mind of Christ, their lowliness of mind will
         be manifested by the nature of their goals and the company they

[Finally, similar to lowliness of mind, "The Renewed Mind" also


      1. "Do not wise in your own opinion" (NKJV)
      2. Some other translations:
         a. "Do not think too highly of yourselves" (Twentieth Century
         b. "Do not be conceited" (Goodspeed)
         c. "And don't think you know it all!" (Living Bible)
      3. Similar warnings are found elsewhere:
         a. Given by Solomon - Pr 3:7; 26:12
         b. Lamented by Isaiah - Isa 5:21
         c. Cautioned by Paul - 1Co 3:18
      -- A renewed mind will maintain a strong sense of humility, an
         awareness that one has much to learn from God and others

      1. Hopefully, by listening to the scriptures
         a. Such as that found in 1Co 8:2
         b. The wisdom of this world is foolishness to God - 1Co 1:20
         c. Not many wise are receptive to the gospel - 1Co 1:26
         d. God has chosen to confound the arrogant in their wisdom
            - 1Co 1:27-29
      2. Hopefully, aided by knowledge and experience
         a. Often, the more you learn, the more you realize how much you
            don't know
         b. Often, the older you get, the more you realize how little
            you know
      3. Hopefully, by the example of Christ
         a. Who was willing to submit to the will of His Father - Jn 6:
            38; 5:30
         b. Who did not think so highly of Himself that He viewed
            equality with God something to be exploited - Php 2:6 (cf.
      -- Adopting the mind of Christ will go a long way to helping
         maintain humility about one's self


1. Such are the qualities of "The Renewed Mind"...
   a. Sameness of mind
   b. Lowliness of mind
   c. Humbleness of mind

2. The more we adopt the mind of Christ, and make it our own...
   a. The more we will think the same
   b. The less we will be snobbish, and ambitious over the wrong things
   c. The more we will associate with the less fortunate
   d. The less conceited and arrogant we will be

Such are the qualities of those who have the mind of Christ, and are
being transformed by the renewing of their minds.  Are we setting our
minds on things above, where Christ is (Col 3:1-2)? If we have been
raised with Christ (via baptism, Col 2:12), that is our duty!

If we have not yet been raised with Christ, why not today?  Render
obedience to the gospel in faith, repentance, and baptism, that you
might begin to walk in newness of life...! - Ac 2:38; Ro 6:3-4

Executable Outlines, Copyright © Mark A. Copeland, 2011

From Gary... Bible Reading September 4

Bible Reading  

September 4

The World English Bible

Sept. 4
Psalms 36-39

Psa 36:1 An oracle is within my heart about the disobedience of the wicked: "There is no fear of God before his eyes."
Psa 36:2 For he flatters himself in his own eyes, too much to detect and hate his sin.
Psa 36:3 The words of his mouth are iniquity and deceit. He has ceased to be wise and to do good.
Psa 36:4 He plots iniquity on his bed. He sets himself in a way that is not good. He doesn't abhor evil.
Psa 36:5 Your loving kindness, Yahweh, is in the heavens. Your faithfulness reaches to the skies.
Psa 36:6 Your righteousness is like the mountains of God. Your judgments are like a great deep. Yahweh, you preserve man and animal.
Psa 36:7 How precious is your loving kindness, God! The children of men take refuge under the shadow of your wings.
Psa 36:8 They shall be abundantly satisfied with the abundance of your house. You will make them drink of the river of your pleasures.
Psa 36:9 For with you is the spring of life. In your light shall we see light.
Psa 36:10 Oh continue your loving kindness to those who know you, your righteousness to the upright in heart.
Psa 36:11 Don't let the foot of pride come against me. Don't let the hand of the wicked drive me away.
Psa 36:12 There the workers of iniquity are fallen. They are thrust down, and shall not be able to rise.
Psa 37:1 Don't fret because of evildoers, neither be envious against those who work unrighteousness.
Psa 37:2 For they shall soon be cut down like the grass, and wither like the green herb.
Psa 37:3 Trust in Yahweh, and do good. Dwell in the land, and enjoy safe pasture.
Psa 37:4 Also delight yourself in Yahweh, and he will give you the desires of your heart.
Psa 37:5 Commit your way to Yahweh. Trust also in him, and he will do this:
Psa 37:6 he will make your righteousness go forth as the light, and your justice as the noon day sun.
Psa 37:7 Rest in Yahweh, and wait patiently for him. Don't fret because of him who prospers in his way, because of the man who makes wicked plots happen.
Psa 37:8 Cease from anger, and forsake wrath. Don't fret, it leads only to evildoing.
Psa 37:9 For evildoers shall be cut off, but those who wait for Yahweh shall inherit the land.
Psa 37:10 For yet a little while, and the wicked will be no more. Yes, though you look for his place, he isn't there.
Psa 37:11 But the humble shall inherit the land, and shall delight themselves in the abundance of peace.
Psa 37:12 The wicked plots against the just, and gnashes at him with his teeth.
Psa 37:13 The Lord will laugh at him, for he sees that his day is coming.
Psa 37:14 The wicked have drawn out the sword, and have bent their bow, to cast down the poor and needy, to kill those who are upright in the way.
Psa 37:15 Their sword shall enter into their own heart. Their bows shall be broken.
Psa 37:16 Better is a little that the righteous has, than the abundance of many wicked.
Psa 37:17 For the arms of the wicked shall be broken, but Yahweh upholds the righteous.
Psa 37:18 Yahweh knows the days of the perfect. Their inheritance shall be forever.
Psa 37:19 They shall not be disappointed in the time of evil. In the days of famine they shall be satisfied.
Psa 37:20 But the wicked shall perish. The enemies of Yahweh shall be like the beauty of the fields. They will vanish-- vanish like smoke.
Psa 37:21 The wicked borrow, and don't pay back, but the righteous give generously.
Psa 37:22 For such as are blessed by him shall inherit the land. Those who are cursed by him shall be cut off.
Psa 37:23 A man's goings are established by Yahweh. He delights in his way.
Psa 37:24 Though he stumble, he shall not fall, for Yahweh holds him up with his hand.
Psa 37:25 I have been young, and now am old, yet I have not seen the righteous forsaken, nor his children begging for bread.
Psa 37:26 All day long he deals graciously, and lends. His seed is blessed.
Psa 37:27 Depart from evil, and do good. Live securely forever.
Psa 37:28 For Yahweh loves justice, and doesn't forsake his saints. They are preserved forever, but the children of the wicked shall be cut off.
Psa 37:29 The righteous shall inherit the land, and live in it forever.
Psa 37:30 The mouth of the righteous talks of wisdom. His tongue speaks justice.
Psa 37:31 The law of his God is in his heart. None of his steps shall slide.
Psa 37:32 The wicked watches the righteous, and seeks to kill him.
Psa 37:33 Yahweh will not leave him in his hand, nor condemn him when he is judged.
Psa 37:34 Wait for Yahweh, and keep his way, and he will exalt you to inherit the land. When the wicked are cut off, you shall see it.
Psa 37:35 I have seen the wicked in great power, spreading himself like a green tree in its native soil.
Psa 37:36 But he passed away, and behold, he was not. Yes, I sought him, but he could not be found.
Psa 37:37 Mark the perfect man, and see the upright, for there is a future for the man of peace.
Psa 37:38 As for transgressors, they shall be destroyed together. The future of the wicked shall be cut off.
Psa 37:39 But the salvation of the righteous is from Yahweh. He is their stronghold in the time of trouble.
Psa 37:40 Yahweh helps them, and rescues them. He rescues them from the wicked, and saves them, Because they have taken refuge in him.
Psa 38:1 Yahweh, don't rebuke me in your wrath, neither chasten me in your hot displeasure.
Psa 38:2 For your arrows have pierced me, your hand presses hard on me.
Psa 38:3 There is no soundness in my flesh because of your indignation, neither is there any health in my bones because of my sin.
Psa 38:4 For my iniquities have gone over my head. As a heavy burden, they are too heavy for me.
Psa 38:5 My wounds are loathsome and corrupt, because of my foolishness.
Psa 38:6 I am pained and bowed down greatly. I go mourning all day long.
Psa 38:7 For my waist is filled with burning. There is no soundness in my flesh.
Psa 38:8 I am faint and severely bruised. I have groaned by reason of the anguish of my heart.
Psa 38:9 Lord, all my desire is before you. My groaning is not hidden from you.
Psa 38:10 My heart throbs. My strength fails me. As for the light of my eyes, it has also left me.
Psa 38:11 My lovers and my friends stand aloof from my plague. My kinsmen stand far away.
Psa 38:12 They also who seek after my life lay snares. Those who seek my hurt speak mischievous things, and meditate deceits all day long.
Psa 38:13 But I, as a deaf man, don't hear. I am as a mute man who doesn't open his mouth.
Psa 38:14 Yes, I am as a man who doesn't hear, in whose mouth are no reproofs.
Psa 38:15 For in you, Yahweh, do I hope. You will answer, Lord my God.
Psa 38:16 For I said, "Don't let them gloat over me, or exalt themselves over me when my foot slips."
Psa 38:17 For I am ready to fall. My pain is continually before me.
Psa 38:18 For I will declare my iniquity. I will be sorry for my sin.
Psa 38:19 But my enemies are vigorous and many. Those who hate me without reason are numerous.
Psa 38:20 They who also render evil for good are adversaries to me, because I follow what is good.
Psa 38:21 Don't forsake me, Yahweh. My God, don't be far from me.
Psa 38:22 Hurry to help me, Lord, my salvation.
Psa 39:1 I said, "I will watch my ways, so that I don't sin with my tongue. I will keep my mouth with a bridle while the wicked is before me."
Psa 39:2 I was mute with silence. I held my peace, even from good. My sorrow was stirred.
Psa 39:3 My heart was hot within me. While I meditated, the fire burned: I spoke with my tongue:
Psa 39:4 "Yahweh, show me my end, what is the measure of my days. Let me know how frail I am.
Psa 39:5 Behold, you have made my days handbreadths. My lifetime is as nothing before you. Surely every man stands as a breath." Selah.
Psa 39:6 "Surely every man walks like a shadow. Surely they busy themselves in vain. He heaps up, and doesn't know who shall gather.
Psa 39:7 Now, Lord, what do I wait for? My hope is in you.
Psa 39:8 Deliver me from all my transgressions. Don't make me the reproach of the foolish.
Psa 39:9 I was mute. I didn't open my mouth, because you did it.
Psa 39:10 Remove your scourge away from me. I am overcome by the blow of your hand.
Psa 39:11 When you rebuke and correct man for iniquity, You consume his wealth like a moth. Surely every man is but a breath." Selah.
Psa 39:12 "Hear my prayer, Yahweh, and give ear to my cry. Don't be silent at my tears. For I am a stranger with you, a foreigner, as all my fathers were.
Psa 39:13 Oh spare me, that I may recover strength, before I go away, and exist no more."

Sept. 4
Romans 16

Rom 16:1 I commend to you Phoebe, our sister, who is a servant of the assembly that is at Cenchreae,
Rom 16:2 that you receive her in the Lord, in a way worthy of the saints, and that you assist her in whatever matter she may need from you, for she herself also has been a helper of many, and of my own self.
Rom 16:3 Greet Prisca and Aquila, my fellow workers in Christ Jesus,
Rom 16:4 who for my life, laid down their own necks; to whom not only I give thanks, but also all the assemblies of the Gentiles.
Rom 16:5 Greet the assembly that is in their house. Greet Epaenetus, my beloved, who is the first fruits of Achaia to Christ.
Rom 16:6 Greet Mary, who labored much for us.
Rom 16:7 Greet Andronicus and Junias, my relatives and my fellow prisoners, who are notable among the apostles, who also were in Christ before me.
Rom 16:8 Greet Amplias, my beloved in the Lord.
Rom 16:9 Greet Urbanus, our fellow worker in Christ, and Stachys, my beloved.
Rom 16:10 Greet Apelles, the approved in Christ. Greet those who are of the household of Aristobulus.
Rom 16:11 Greet Herodion, my kinsman. Greet them of the household of Narcissus, who are in the Lord.
Rom 16:12 Greet Tryphaena and Tryphosa, who labor in the Lord. Greet Persis, the beloved, who labored much in the Lord.
Rom 16:13 Greet Rufus, the chosen in the Lord, and his mother and mine.
Rom 16:14 Greet Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermes, Patrobas, Hermas, and the brothers who are with them.
Rom 16:15 Greet Philologus and Julia, Nereus and his sister, and Olympas, and all the saints who are with them.
Rom 16:16 Greet one another with a holy kiss. The assemblies of Christ greet you.
Rom 16:17 Now I beg you, brothers, look out for those who are causing the divisions and occasions of stumbling, contrary to the doctrine which you learned, and turn away from them.
Rom 16:18 For those who are such don't serve our Lord, Jesus Christ, but their own belly; and by their smooth and flattering speech, they deceive the hearts of the innocent.
Rom 16:19 For your obedience has become known to all. I rejoice therefore over you. But I desire to have you wise in that which is good, but innocent in that which is evil.
Rom 16:20 And the God of peace will quickly crush Satan under your feet. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you.
Rom 16:21 Timothy, my fellow worker, greets you, as do Lucius, Jason, and Sosipater, my relatives.
Rom 16:22 I, Tertius, who write the letter, greet you in the Lord.
Rom 16:23 Gaius, my host and host of the whole assembly, greets you. Erastus, the treasurer of the city, greets you, as does Quartus, the brother.
Rom 16:24 The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all! Amen.
Rom 16:25 Now to him who is able to establish you according to my Good News and the preaching of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the mystery which has been kept secret through long ages,
Rom 16:26 but now is revealed, and by the Scriptures of the prophets, according to the commandment of the eternal God, is made known for obedience of faith to all the nations;
Rom 16:27 to the only wise God, through Jesus Christ, to whom be the glory forever! Amen.