From Gary... Bible Reading July 14

Bible Reading  

July 14

The World English Bible

July 14
1 Chronicles 4-6

1Ch 4:1 The sons of Judah: Perez, Hezron, and Carmi, and Hur, and Shobal.
1Ch 4:2 Reaiah the son of Shobal became the father of Jahath; and Jahath became the father of Ahumai and Lahad. These are the families of the Zorathites.
1Ch 4:3 These were the sons of the father of Etam: Jezreel, and Ishma, and Idbash; and the name of their sister was Hazzelelponi;
1Ch 4:4 and Penuel the father of Gedor, and Ezer the father of Hushah. These are the sons of Hur, the firstborn of Ephrathah, the father of Bethlehem.
1Ch 4:5 Ashhur the father of Tekoa had two wives, Helah and Naarah.
1Ch 4:6 Naarah bore him Ahuzzam, and Hepher, and Temeni, and Haahashtari. These were the sons of Naarah.
1Ch 4:7 The sons of Helah were Zereth, Izhar, and Ethnan.
1Ch 4:8 Hakkoz became the father of Anub, and Zobebah, and the families of Aharhel the son of Harum.
1Ch 4:9 Jabez was more honorable than his brothers: and his mother named him Jabez, saying, Because I bore him with sorrow.
1Ch 4:10 Jabez called on the God of Israel, saying, Oh that you would bless me indeed, and enlarge my border, and that your hand might be with me, and that you would keep me from evil, that it not be to my sorrow! God granted him that which he requested.
1Ch 4:11 Chelub the brother of Shuhah became the father of Mehir, who was the father of Eshton.
1Ch 4:12 Eshton became the father of Beth Rapha, and Paseah, and Tehinnah the father of Ir Nahash. These are the men of Recah.
1Ch 4:13 The sons of Kenaz: Othniel, and Seraiah. The sons of Othniel: Hathath.
1Ch 4:14 Meonothai became the father of Ophrah: and Seraiah became the father of Joab the father of Ge Harashim; for they were craftsmen.
1Ch 4:15 The sons of Caleb the son of Jephunneh: Iru, Elah, and Naam; and the sons of Elah; and Kenaz.
1Ch 4:16 The sons of Jehallelel: Ziph, and Ziphah, Tiria, and Asarel.
1Ch 4:17 The sons of Ezrah: Jether, and Mered, and Epher, and Jalon; and she bore Miriam, and Shammai, and Ishbah the father of Eshtemoa.
1Ch 4:18 His wife the Jewess bore Jered the father of Gedor, and Heber the father of Soco, and Jekuthiel the father of Zanoah. These are the sons of Bithiah the daughter of Pharaoh, whom Mered took.
1Ch 4:19 The sons of the wife of Hodiah, the sister of Naham, were the father of Keilah the Garmite, and Eshtemoa the Maacathite.
1Ch 4:20 The sons of Shimon: Amnon, and Rinnah, Ben Hanan, and Tilon. The sons of Ishi: Zoheth, and Ben Zoheth.
1Ch 4:21 The sons of Shelah the son of Judah: Er the father of Lecah, and Laadah the father of Mareshah, and the families of the house of those who worked fine linen, of the house of Ashbea;
1Ch 4:22 and Jokim, and the men of Cozeba, and Joash, and Saraph, who had dominion in Moab, and Jashubilehem. The records are ancient.
1Ch 4:23 These were the potters, and the inhabitants of Netaim and Gederah: there they lived with the king for his work.
1Ch 4:24 The sons of Simeon: Nemuel, and Jamin, Jarib, Zerah, Shaul;
1Ch 4:25 Shallum his son, Mibsam his son, Mishma his son.
1Ch 4:26 The sons of Mishma: Hammuel his son, Zaccur his son, Shimei his son.
1Ch 4:27 Shimei had sixteen sons and six daughters; but his brothers didn't have many children, neither did all their family multiply like the children of Judah.
1Ch 4:28 They lived at Beersheba, and Moladah, and Hazarshual,
1Ch 4:29 and at Bilhah, and at Ezem, and at Tolad,
1Ch 4:30 and at Bethuel, and at Hormah, and at Ziklag,
1Ch 4:31 and at Beth Marcaboth, and Hazar Susim, and at Beth Biri, and at Shaaraim. These were their cities to the reign of David.
1Ch 4:32 Their villages were Etam, and Ain, Rimmon, and Tochen, and Ashan, five cities;
1Ch 4:33 and all their villages that were around the same cities, to Baal. These were their habitations, and they have their genealogy.
1Ch 4:34 Meshobab, and Jamlech, and Joshah the son of Amaziah,
1Ch 4:35 and Joel, and Jehu the son of Joshibiah, the son of Seraiah, the son of Asiel,
1Ch 4:36 and Elioenai, and Jaakobah, and Jeshohaiah, and Asaiah, and Adiel, and Jesimiel, and Benaiah,
1Ch 4:37 and Ziza the son of Shiphi, the son of Allon, the son of Jedaiah, the son of Shimri, the son of Shemaiah--
1Ch 4:38 these mentioned by name were princes in their families: and their fathers' houses increased greatly.
1Ch 4:39 They went to the entrance of Gedor, even to the east side of the valley, to seek pasture for their flocks.
1Ch 4:40 They found fat pasture and good, and the land was wide, and quiet, and peaceable; for those who lived there before were of Ham.
1Ch 4:41 These written by name came in the days of Hezekiah king of Judah, and struck their tents, and the Meunim who were found there, and destroyed them utterly to this day, and lived in their place; because there was pasture there for their flocks.
1Ch 4:42 Some of them, even of the sons of Simeon, five hundred men, went to Mount Seir, having for their captains Pelatiah, and Neariah, and Rephaiah, and Uzziel, the sons of Ishi.
1Ch 4:43 They struck the remnant of the Amalekites who escaped, and have lived there to this day.
1Ch 5:1 The sons of Reuben the firstborn of Israel (for he was the firstborn; but, because he defiled his father's couch, his birthright was given to the sons of Joseph the son of Israel; and the genealogy is not to be reckoned after the birthright.
1Ch 5:2 For Judah prevailed above his brothers, and of him came the prince; but the birthright was Joseph's:)
1Ch 5:3 the sons of Reuben the firstborn of Israel: Hanoch, and Pallu, Hezron, and Carmi.
1Ch 5:4 The sons of Joel: Shemaiah his son, Gog his son, Shimei his son,
1Ch 5:5 Micah his son, Reaiah his son, Baal his son,
1Ch 5:6 Beerah his son, whom Tilgath Pilneser king of Assyria carried away captive: he was prince of the Reubenites.
1Ch 5:7 His brothers by their families, when the genealogy of their generations was reckoned: the chief, Jeiel, and Zechariah,
1Ch 5:8 and Bela the son of Azaz, the son of Shema, the son of Joel, who lived in Aroer, even to Nebo and Baal Meon:
1Ch 5:9 and eastward he lived even to the entrance of the wilderness from the river Euphrates, because their livestock were multiplied in the land of Gilead.
1Ch 5:10 In the days of Saul, they made war with the Hagrites, who fell by their hand; and they lived in their tents throughout all the land east of Gilead.
1Ch 5:11 The sons of Gad lived over against them, in the land of Bashan to Salecah:
1Ch 5:12 Joel the chief, and Shapham the second, and Janai, and Shaphat in Bashan.
1Ch 5:13 Their brothers of their fathers' houses: Michael, and Meshullam, and Sheba, and Jorai, and Jacan, and Zia, and Eber, seven.
1Ch 5:14 These were the sons of Abihail, the son of Huri, the son of Jaroah, the son of Gilead, the son of Michael, the son of Jeshishai, the son of Jahdo, the son of Buz;
1Ch 5:15 Ahi the son of Abdiel, the son of Guni, chief of their fathers' houses.
1Ch 5:16 They lived in Gilead in Bashan, and in its towns, and in all the suburbs of Sharon, as far as their borders.
1Ch 5:17 All these were reckoned by genealogies in the days of Jotham king of Judah, and in the days of Jeroboam king of Israel.
1Ch 5:18 The sons of Reuben, and the Gadites, and the half-tribe of Manasseh, of valiant men, men able to bear buckler and sword, and to shoot with bow, and skillful in war, were forty-four thousand seven hundred and sixty, that were able to go forth to war.
1Ch 5:19 They made war with the Hagrites, with Jetur, and Naphish, and Nodab.
1Ch 5:20 They were helped against them, and the Hagrites were delivered into their hand, and all who were with them; for they cried to God in the battle, and he was entreated of them, because they put their trust in him.
1Ch 5:21 They took away their livestock; of their camels fifty thousand, and of sheep two hundred fifty thousand, and of donkeys two thousand, and of men one hundred thousand.
1Ch 5:22 For there fell many slain, because the war was of God. They lived in their place until the captivity.
1Ch 5:23 The children of the half-tribe of Manasseh lived in the land: they increased from Bashan to Baal Hermon and Senir and Mount Hermon.
1Ch 5:24 These were the heads of their fathers' houses: even Epher, and Ishi, and Eliel, and Azriel, and Jeremiah, and Hodaviah, and Jahdiel, mighty men of valor, famous men, heads of their fathers' houses.
1Ch 5:25 They trespassed against the God of their fathers, and played the prostitute after the gods of the peoples of the land, whom God destroyed before them.
1Ch 5:26 The God of Israel stirred up the spirit of Pul king of Assyria, and the spirit of Tilgath Pilneser king of Assyria, and he carried them away, even the Reubenites, and the Gadites, and the half-tribe of Manasseh, and brought them to Halah, and Habor, and Hara, and to the river of Gozan, to this day.
1Ch 6:1 The sons of Levi: Gershon, Kohath, and Merari.
1Ch 6:2 The sons of Kohath: Amram, Izhar, and Hebron, and Uzziel.
1Ch 6:3 The children of Amram: Aaron, and Moses, and Miriam. The sons of Aaron: Nadab, and Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar.
1Ch 6:4 Eleazar became the father of Phinehas, Phinehas became the father of Abishua,
1Ch 6:5 and Abishua became the father of Bukki, and Bukki became the father of Uzzi,
1Ch 6:6 and Uzzi became the father of Zerahiah, and Zerahiah became the father of Meraioth,
1Ch 6:7 Meraioth became the father of Amariah, and Amariah became the father of Ahitub,
1Ch 6:8 and Ahitub became the father of Zadok, and Zadok became the father of Ahimaaz,
1Ch 6:9 and Ahimaaz became the father of Azariah, and Azariah became the father of Johanan,
1Ch 6:10 and Johanan became the father of Azariah, (he it is who executed the priest's office in the house that Solomon built in Jerusalem),
1Ch 6:11 and Azariah became the father of Amariah, and Amariah became the father of Ahitub,
1Ch 6:12 and Ahitub became the father of Zadok, and Zadok became the father of Shallum,
1Ch 6:13 and Shallum became the father of Hilkiah, and Hilkiah became the father of Azariah,
1Ch 6:14 and Azariah became the father of Seraiah, and Seraiah became the father of Jehozadak;
1Ch 6:15 Jehozadak went into captivity, when Yahweh carried away Judah and Jerusalem by the hand of Nebuchadnezzar.
1Ch 6:16 The sons of Levi: Gershom, Kohath, and Merari.
1Ch 6:17 These are the names of the sons of Gershom: Libni and Shimei.
1Ch 6:18 The sons of Kohath were Amram, and Izhar, and Hebron, and Uzziel.
1Ch 6:19 The sons of Merari: Mahli and Mushi. These are the families of the Levites according to their fathers' houses.
1Ch 6:20 Of Gershom: Libni his son, Jahath his son, Zimmah his son,
1Ch 6:21 Joah his son, Iddo his son, Zerah his son, Jeatherai his son.
1Ch 6:22 The sons of Kohath: Amminadab his son, Korah his son, Assir his son,
1Ch 6:23 Elkanah his son, and Ebiasaph his son, and Assir his son,
1Ch 6:24 Tahath his son, Uriel his son, Uzziah his son, and Shaul his son.
1Ch 6:25 The sons of Elkanah: Amasai, and Ahimoth.
1Ch 6:26 As for Elkanah, the sons of Elkanah: Zophai his son, and Nahath his son,
1Ch 6:27 Eliab his son, Jeroham his son, Elkanah his son.
1Ch 6:28 The sons of Samuel: the firstborn Joel, and the second Abijah.
1Ch 6:29 The sons of Merari: Mahli, Libni his son, Shimei his son, Uzzah his son,
1Ch 6:30 Shimea his son, Haggiah his son, Asaiah his son.
1Ch 6:31 These are they whom David set over the service of song in the house of Yahweh, after that the ark had rest.
1Ch 6:32 They ministered with song before the tabernacle of the Tent of Meeting, until Solomon had built the house of Yahweh in Jerusalem: and they waited on their office according to their order.
1Ch 6:33 These are those who waited, and their sons. Of the sons of the Kohathites: Heman the singer, the son of Joel, the son of Samuel,
1Ch 6:34 the son of Elkanah, the son of Jeroham, the son of Eliel, the son of Toah,
1Ch 6:35 the son of Zuph, the son of Elkanah, the son of Mahath, the son of Amasai,
1Ch 6:36 the son of Elkanah, the son of Joel, the son of Azariah, the son of Zephaniah,
1Ch 6:37 the son of Tahath, the son of Assir, the son of Ebiasaph, the son of Korah,
1Ch 6:38 the son of Izhar, the son of Kohath, the son of Levi, the son of Israel.
1Ch 6:39 His brother Asaph, who stood on his right hand, even Asaph the son of Berechiah, the son of Shimea,
1Ch 6:40 the son of Michael, the son of Baaseiah, the son of Malchijah,
1Ch 6:41 the son of Ethni, the son of Zerah, the son of Adaiah,
1Ch 6:42 the son of Ethan, the son of Zimmah, the son of Shimei,
1Ch 6:43 the son of Jahath, the son of Gershom, the son of Levi.
1Ch 6:44 On the left hand their brothers the sons of Merari: Ethan the son of Kishi, the son of Abdi, the son of Malluch,
1Ch 6:45 the son of Hashabiah, the son of Amaziah, the son of Hilkiah,
1Ch 6:46 the son of Amzi, the son of Bani, the son of Shemer,
1Ch 6:47 the son of Mahli, the son of Mushi, the son of Merari, the son of Levi.
1Ch 6:48 Their brothers the Levites were appointed for all the service of the tabernacle of the house of God.
1Ch 6:49 But Aaron and his sons offered on the altar of burnt offering, and on the altar of incense, for all the work of the most holy place, and to make atonement for Israel, according to all that Moses the servant of God had commanded.
1Ch 6:50 These are the sons of Aaron: Eleazar his son, Phinehas his son, Abishua his son,
1Ch 6:51 Bukki his son, Uzzi his son, Zerahiah his son,
1Ch 6:52 Meraioth his son, Amariah his son, Ahitub his son,
1Ch 6:53 Zadok his son, Ahimaaz his son.
1Ch 6:54 Now these are their dwelling places according to their encampments in their borders: to the sons of Aaron, of the families of the Kohathites (for theirs was the first lot),
1Ch 6:55 to them they gave Hebron in the land of Judah, and its suburbs around it;
1Ch 6:56 but the fields of the city, and its villages, they gave to Caleb the son of Jephunneh.
1Ch 6:57 To the sons of Aaron they gave the cities of refuge, Hebron; Libnah also with its suburbs, and Jattir, and Eshtemoa with its suburbs,
1Ch 6:58 and Hilen with its suburbs, Debir with its suburbs,
1Ch 6:59 and Ashan with its suburbs, and Beth Shemesh with its suburbs;
1Ch 6:60 and out of the tribe of Benjamin, Geba with its suburbs, and Allemeth with its suburbs, and Anathoth with its suburbs. All their cities throughout their families were thirteen cities.
1Ch 6:61 To the rest of the sons of Kohath were given by lot, out of the family of the tribe, out of the half-tribe, the half of Manasseh, ten cities.
1Ch 6:62 To the sons of Gershom, according to their families, out of the tribe of Issachar, and out of the tribe of Asher, and out of the tribe of Naphtali, and out of the tribe of Manasseh in Bashan, thirteen cities.
1Ch 6:63 To the sons of Merari were given by lot, according to their families, out of the tribe of Reuben, and out of the tribe of Gad, and out of the tribe of Zebulun, twelve cities.
1Ch 6:64 The children of Israel gave to the Levites the cities with their suburbs.
1Ch 6:65 They gave by lot out of the tribe of the children of Judah, and out of the tribe of the children of Simeon, and out of the tribe of the children of Benjamin, these cities which are mentioned by name.
1Ch 6:66 Some of the families of the sons of Kohath had cities of their borders out of the tribe of Ephraim.
1Ch 6:67 They gave to them the cities of refuge, Shechem in the hill country of Ephraim with its suburbs; Gezer also with its suburbs,
1Ch 6:68 and Jokmeam with its suburbs, and Beth Horon with its suburbs,
1Ch 6:69 and Aijalon with its suburbs, and Gath Rimmon with its suburbs;
1Ch 6:70 and out of the half-tribe of Manasseh, Aner with its suburbs, and Bileam with its suburbs, for the rest of the family of the sons of Kohath.
1Ch 6:71 To the sons of Gershom were given, out of the family of the half-tribe of Manasseh, Golan in Bashan with its suburbs, and Ashtaroth with its suburbs;
1Ch 6:72 and out of the tribe of Issachar, Kedesh with its suburbs, Daberath with its suburbs,
1Ch 6:73 and Ramoth with its suburbs, and Anem with its suburbs;
1Ch 6:74 and out of the tribe of Asher, Mashal with its suburbs, and Abdon with its suburbs,
1Ch 6:75 and Hukok with its suburbs, and Rehob with its suburbs;
1Ch 6:76 and out of the tribe of Naphtali, Kedesh in Galilee with its suburbs, and Hammon with its suburbs, and Kiriathaim with its suburbs.
1Ch 6:77 To the rest of the Levites, the sons of Merari, were given, out of the tribe of Zebulun, Rimmono with its suburbs, Tabor with its suburbs;
1Ch 6:78 and beyond the Jordan at Jericho, on the east side of the Jordan, were given them, out of the tribe of Reuben, Bezer in the wilderness with its suburbs, and Jahzah with its suburbs,
1Ch 6:79 and Kedemoth with its suburbs, and Mephaath with its suburbs;
1Ch 6:80 and out of the tribe of Gad, Ramoth in Gilead with its suburbs, and Mahanaim with its suburbs,
1Ch 6:81 and Heshbon with its suburbs, and Jazer with its suburbs.

July 14, 15
Acts 10

Act 10:1 Now there was a certain man in Caesarea, Cornelius by name, a centurion of what was called the Italian Regiment,
Act 10:2 a devout man, and one who feared God with all his house, who gave gifts for the needy generously to the people, and always prayed to God.
Act 10:3 At about the ninth hour of the day, he clearly saw in a vision an angel of God coming to him, and saying to him, "Cornelius!"
Act 10:4 He, fastening his eyes on him, and being frightened, said, "What is it, Lord?" He said to him, "Your prayers and your gifts to the needy have gone up for a memorial before God.
Act 10:5 Now send men to Joppa, and get Simon, who is surnamed Peter.
Act 10:6 He lodges with one Simon, a tanner, whose house is by the seaside."
Act 10:7 When the angel who spoke to him had departed, Cornelius called two of his household servants and a devout soldier of those who waited on him continually.
Act 10:8 Having explained everything to them, he sent them to Joppa.
Act 10:9 Now on the next day as they were on their journey, and got close to the city, Peter went up on the housetop to pray at about noon.
Act 10:10 He became hungry and desired to eat, but while they were preparing, he fell into a trance.
Act 10:11 He saw heaven opened and a certain container descending to him, like a great sheet let down by four corners on the earth,
Act 10:12 in which were all kinds of four-footed animals of the earth, wild animals, reptiles, and birds of the sky.
Act 10:13 A voice came to him, "Rise, Peter, kill and eat!"
Act 10:14 But Peter said, "Not so, Lord; for I have never eaten anything that is common or unclean."
Act 10:15 A voice came to him again the second time, "What God has cleansed, you must not call unclean."
Act 10:16 This was done three times, and immediately the vessel was received up into heaven.
Act 10:17 Now while Peter was very perplexed in himself what the vision which he had seen might mean, behold, the men who were sent by Cornelius, having made inquiry for Simon's house, stood before the gate,
Act 10:18 and called and asked whether Simon, who was surnamed Peter, was lodging there.
Act 10:19 While Peter was pondering the vision, the Spirit said to him, "Behold, three men seek you.
Act 10:20 But arise, get down, and go with them, doubting nothing; for I have sent them."
Act 10:21 Peter went down to the men, and said, "Behold, I am he whom you seek. Why have you come?"
Act 10:22 They said, "Cornelius, a centurion, a righteous man and one who fears God, and well spoken of by all the nation of the Jews, was directed by a holy angel to invite you to his house, and to listen to what you say."
Act 10:23 So he called them in and lodged them. On the next day Peter arose and went out with them, and some of the brothers from Joppa accompanied him.
Act 10:24 On the next day they entered into Caesarea. Cornelius was waiting for them, having called together his relatives and his near friends.
Act 10:25 When it happened that Peter entered, Cornelius met him, fell down at his feet, and worshiped him.
Act 10:26 But Peter raised him up, saying, "Stand up! I myself am also a man."
Act 10:27 As he talked with him, he went in and found many gathered together.
Act 10:28 He said to them, "You yourselves know how it is an unlawful thing for a man who is a Jew to join himself or come to one of another nation, but God has shown me that I shouldn't call any man unholy or unclean.
Act 10:29 Therefore also I came without complaint when I was sent for. I ask therefore, why did you send for me?"
Act 10:30 Cornelius said, "Four days ago, I was fasting until this hour, and at the ninth hour, I prayed in my house, and behold, a man stood before me in bright clothing,
Act 10:31 and said, 'Cornelius, your prayer is heard, and your gifts to the needy are remembered in the sight of God.
Act 10:32 Send therefore to Joppa, and summon Simon, who is surnamed Peter. He lodges in the house of Simon a tanner, by the seaside. When he comes, he will speak to you.'
Act 10:33 Therefore I sent to you at once, and it was good of you to come. Now therefore we are all here present in the sight of God to hear all things that have been commanded you by God."
Act 10:34 Peter opened his mouth and said, "Truly I perceive that God doesn't show favoritism;
Act 10:35 but in every nation he who fears him and works righteousness is acceptable to him.
Act 10:36 The word which he sent to the children of Israel, preaching good news of peace by Jesus Christ-he is Lord of all-
Act 10:37 that spoken word you yourselves know, which was proclaimed throughout all Judea, beginning from Galilee, after the baptism which John preached;
Act 10:38 even Jesus of Nazareth, how God anointed him with the Holy Spirit and with power, who went about doing good and healing all who were oppressed by the devil, for God was with him.
Act 10:39 We are witnesses of everything he did both in the country of the Jews, and in Jerusalem; whom they also killed, hanging him on a tree.
Act 10:40 God raised him up the third day, and gave him to be revealed,
Act 10:41 not to all the people, but to witnesses who were chosen before by God, to us, who ate and drank with him after he rose from the dead.
Act 10:42 He commanded us to preach to the people and to testify that this is he who is appointed by God as the Judge of the living and the dead.
Act 10:43 All the prophets testify about him, that through his name everyone who believes in him will receive remission of sins."
Act 10:44 While Peter was still speaking these words, the Holy Spirit fell on all those who heard the word.
Act 10:45 They of the circumcision who believed were amazed, as many as came with Peter, because the gift of the Holy Spirit was also poured out on the Gentiles.
Act 10:46 For they heard them speaking in other languages and magnifying God. Then Peter answered,
Act 10:47 "Can any man forbid the water, that these who have received the Holy Spirit as well as we should not be baptized?"
Act 10:48 He commanded them to be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ. Then they asked him to stay some days.

From Jim McGuiggan... Triumph and Loss in Revelation

Triumph and Loss in Revelation

The future victory of the redeemed is described in numerous images. Marriage suppers, a City 1,5000 miles high, wide and broad, made of jewels and precious things. There is an Edenic garden with lines of Trees of Life with leaves that heal the diseases of the nations, enthronement for 1,000 years and access to a River of Life (and numerous other images in the book).
The fate of the defeated armies of the Dragon and his Beasts is to be trampled in a winepress until the blood is a river six feet deep and one hundred and eighty miles long (14:17-20). Their fate is death, resurrection to a second death, ceaseless burning in a lake of fire (which in 14:9-11 is located in the presence of the Lamb) and various other things.
To take either of these two composite pictures as the actual description of what is yet ahead and build a doctrine on it that people must receive or be called heretics makes no sense to me. I don’t think the Revelation passages that speak of a lake of fire should be used to support the doctrine of eternal conscious torture of the unforgiven. I think that the battle in Revelation is Christ and the Church against the Dragon and Rome. The extended picture of Rome’s defeat, which includes warning plagues, followed by a full outpouring of wrath, wasn’t meant to be understood in any literal fashion. I don’t think we’re supposed to take the judgement scenes literally either. These are all images of how an anti-God, anti-holiness, anti-life tyrannical kingdom was to go down before a God of holiness, life and power. It spoke to the church in the first century and speaks to every generation that follows.
To build a picture of heavenly bliss or hellish torture in the future on the precise details gives in these images is to miss the mark completely.  

©2004 Jim McGuiggan. All materials are free to be copied and used as long as money is not being made.

Clinton: No Creation of Embryos for Research by Trevor Major, M.Sc., M.A.


Clinton: No Creation of Embryos for Research

by  Trevor Major, M.Sc., M.A.

In June of 1993, a Democrat-dominated Congress lifted former President Ronald Reagan’s 1980 ban on federal support for research on human embryos. Previously, scientists had to use private funds if they wanted to study “spare” embryos created by in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedures. This effectively curtailed laboratory experimentation on fertilized eggs. With the legal roadblocks removed, Uncle Sam, in the guise of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), now can pick up the tab for such research.
During 1994, a special NIH panel met to formulate funding guidelines. Following the lead of several other countries, the panel gave the green light for work on embryos until the fourteenth day. Embryos could come from IVF procedures, or could be produced specifically for research purposes. Either approach creates serious ethical problems, because it is extremely unlikely that the embryos in these experiments will be implanted after the two-week limit; they will die in the lab.
Fortunately, thirty-five congressmen, led by Rep. Robert Dornan (R-Calif.), have taken the initiative in challenging NIH policies. “Congress has not examined these initiatives,” they reminded NIH Director Harold Varmus in a June 16 letter, “and the American people are largely unaware that the NIH is even contemplating using their tax dollars to fund such bizarre experiments on living human embryos.” In particular, many conservatives were incensed that human embryos could be created specifically for research.
Apparently these concerns, bolstered by a change of guard on Capitol Hill, spurred President Bill Clinton to action. On December 2, 1994—only hours after the NIH accepted its panel’s guidelines—Clinton announced the following: “I do not believe that federal funds should be used to support the creation of human embryos for research purposes, and I have directed that NIH not allocate any resources for such research.”
Thankfully, also, the panel advised against support for research on more advanced embryos, and ruled twinning and nuclear cloning unacceptable. However, comments from various panel members suggest that they did not base their decisions on ethical absolutes. Rather, they weighed pragmatic considerations against the feelings of people “out there,” to use the words of panelist Pamela Davis. The scope of eligible research may change when feelings change. Further, the policies adopted by NIH are guidelines, not laws or rules, and are limited to federally funded projects.
Even this is no guarantee of compliance. In early December, National Public Radio revealed the results of an inquiry by George Washington University into the controversial cloning work of Robert Stillman and Jerry Hall. Although not conducted with federal funds, Stillman and Hall’s project had not received timely approval from a review board, and they did not obtain informed consent from embryo donors. Clearly, there is no room for complacency.

Behemoth: A Tail Like a Cedar? by Dave Miller, Ph.D.


Behemoth: A Tail Like a Cedar?

by  Dave Miller, Ph.D.

In His description of behemoth, God states emphatically that the creature “moves his tail like a cedar” (Job 40:17). Yet many commentators have insisted that behemoth is to be identified as either the elephant, or more likely, the hippopotamus (cf. the NIV footnote at Job 40:15: “Possibly the hippopotamus or the elephant”). Since both of these animals have farcically tiny tails, the comparison of behemoth’s tail with a cedar must be explained in some way.
One explanation is to claim that the term “tail” (zah-nahv) refers to a general appendage and so may refer to an elephant’s “trunk” (e.g., Harris’ note in Harris, et al., 1980, 1:246). Of course, this position logically surrenders the view that behemoth was a hippopotamus. In either case, however, no linguistic evidence supports this speculation, as Hebrew lexicographers uniformly define the word as the “tail” of an animal (Brown, et al., 1906, p. 275; Holladay, 1988, p. 90; Davidson, 1850, p. 240; Gesenius, 1847, p. 248; Hebrew-English…, n.d., p. 75). Further, a simple perusal of the use of the term elsewhere in the Old Testament confirms this definition. Occurring 11 times in the Hebrew text of the Old Testament (Wigram, 1890, p. 389), the word is used one time to refer to the tail of a snake (Exodus 4:4), 3 times in Judges 15:4 to refer to fox tails, 4 times in a figurative sense to refer to persons of lower rank in society in contrast to the “head,” i.e., persons of higher rank (Deuteronomy 28:13,44; Isaiah 9:14; 19:15; see Barnes, 1847, 1:197-198,336-337), one time in a figurative sense to indicate the contemptible, lying prophet in contrast with “the elder and honorable” (Isaiah 9:15), and once in Isaiah 7:4 to refer figuratively to King Rezin of Syria and King Pekah of Israel as the tail ends of smoking firebrands (wooden pokers—Gesenius, p. 18). The final occurrence is the reference to the tail of behemoth in Job. Obviously, like the foxes of Judges 15 and the snake of Exodus 4, the tail of behemoth refers to the animal’s literal tail.
Another explanation suggests that only a branch of the cedar is being compared to behemoth’s tail. On the face of such a suggestion, it is difficult to believe that God would call Job’s attention to the tail of the hippopotamus, as if the tail had an important message to convey to Job. In essence, God would be saying to Job: “The behemoth is such an amazing creature—it has a tail like a twig!” Since the context of Job 40 indicates God’s words were intended to impress Job with his inability to control/manage the animal kingdom, such a comparison is meaningless, if not ludicrous.
The Hebrew term rendered “cedar” (eh-rez) refers to a tree of the pine family, the cedrus conifera (Gesenius, 1847, p. 78), more specifically and usually, the cedrus libani—the cedar of Lebanon (Harris, et al., 1980, 1:70). The tree and its wood are alluded to frequently in the Old Testament (some 72 times—Wigram, 1890, p. 154). The renowned cedars of Lebanon grew to an average height of 85 feet, with a trunk circumference averaging 40 feet, and branches that extended horizontally as long as the height of the tree itself (Harris, et al., 1:70). Indeed, the branches themselves were tree-like in size. King Solomon made extensive use of the cedars of Lebanon in his construction projects. The House of the Forest of Lebanon which he built was 45 feet high (comparable to a four-story building today), with its top horizontal beams situated on rows of cedar pillars (1 Kings 7:2-3). No longer the prolific trees they once were, in antiquity they grew in abundance (cf. 1 Chronicles 22:4; Ezra 3:7; Psalm 92:12; 104:16).

“Prodigious Bulk”

Even as Ophir was renowned for the unique quality of its gold (e.g., Isaiah 13:12), the allusions in the Bible to cedars make it clear that the tree was distinguished for its mammoth size, height, and stability. Respected biblical lexicographer John Parkhurst alluded to its “prodigious bulk” (1799, p. 678). In his 1878 book Bible Lands, Henry Van-Lennep observed that the cedar was known as “the image of grandeur and glory” (p. 146). In his Bible Lands Illustrated, Henry Fish described its majesty:
[T]heir massive branches, clothed with a scaly texture almost like the skin of living animals, and contorted with all the multiform irregularities of age, may well have suggested those ideas of regal, and almost divine strength and solidity which the sacred writers ascribe to them…. How natural that Hebrew poets selected such…colossal trunks as emblems of pride, and majesty, and power (p. 685-686, emp. added).
The cedar stands out from all other trees alluded to in the Bible in terms of its size, including the olive, fig, sycamore, pomegranate, almond, acacia, terebinth, myrtle, tamarisk, and even the oak (Padfield, 2011; “Trees in the Land…,” 2011; Baker, 1974).
The cedar is often used metaphorically in the Bible to accentuate these qualities in the object of comparison. For example, consider Isaiah’s prediction of the coming Day of the Lord, which would be a day in which everything that is “high and lifted up” would be brought low—beginning with the cedars of Lebanon, but also including high mountains, high towers and fortified walls, the large and seaworthy ships of Tarshish, and most certainly, man’s pride and haughtiness (2:12-18). Similarly, God pronounced judgment on the mighty Assyrian king Sennacherib because he dared to reproach the Lord and boast: “By the multitude of my chariots I have come up to the height of the mountains, to the limits of Lebanon; I will cut down its tall cedars and its choice cypress trees; I will enter its farthest height” (Isaiah 37:24, emp. added; cf. 2 Kings 19:23).
God declared through the prophet Amos that it was He who enabled the Israelites to occupy the land of Canaan by clearing Palestine of the Amorite “whose height was like the height of the cedars” (Amos 2:9, emp. added). God instructed Ezekiel to speak a parable to his fellow citizens that described how a great eagle “came to Lebanon and took from the cedar the highest branch” (Ezekiel 17:3), i.e., the highest official (King Jehoichin), but one day God would take from the highest branches of the cedar a great replacement, i.e., the Messiah (vs. 22-24). Consider God’s instructions to Ezekiel concerning the speech he was to make to the Egyptian Pharoah:
Son of man, say to Pharaoh king of Egypt and to his multitude: “Whom are you like in your greatness? Indeed Assyria was a cedar in Lebanon, with fine branches that shaded the forest, and of high stature; and its top was among the thick boughs. The waters made it grow; underground waters gave it height….Therefore its height was exalted above all the trees of the field; Its boughs were multiplied, and its branches became long because of the abundance of water, as it sent them out” (Ezekiel 31:2-5, emp. added).
When King Amaziah tried to goad King Jehoash into armed conflict, Jehoash sent a parable that portrayed Amaziah as a measly thistle in contrast to Jehoash the cedar (2 Kings 14:9). Ezekiel compared Tyre to a mighty ship whose mast was made from a cedar from Lebanon (27:5). Zechariah pronounced disaster on those who attack Israel, comparing their downfall to the falling of the “mighty” (“glorious”—ASV/ESV) cedar of Lebanon (11:2).
In all these references, size and height are inherent in the comparison between the cedar trees and their moral or spiritual counterpart. What’s more, though the cedar tree, and especially the cedar of Lebanon, was considered mammoth in its strength and size, the psalmist assures us that the Lord’s voice alone can easily break, splinter, and crush the mighty cedar (Psalm 29:5). So for God to bring to Job’s attention the tail of behemoth, comparing it to a cedar, most certainly means that God intended to dazzle Job with the sheer magnitude of even the creature’s tail (let alone the rest of him!). This creature’s brute strength and size were such that Job would not even consider attempting to subdue or control it. God’s point? The same as it was for describing leviathan: “Who then is able to stand against Me?” (Job 41:10).
How intimidated would Job have been—what weight would God’s argument have carried with Job—if God compared behemoth’s tail merely to a twig or branch? How powerful and effective would God’s argument have been in Job’s mind if God were referring merely to the tail of an elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or even a wooly mammoth? The argument would have fallen flat. An elephant or hippo’s tail would be better likened to a short, pliable whip or cord that swishes quickly from side to side—not the movement of a cedar which sways slowly due to its enormity. Even the purpose of a hippo’s tiny, stump-like tail is hardly noble: “The hippo’s flat, paddle-like tail is used to spread excrement, which marks territory borders and indicates status of an individual” (“Hippopotamus,” n.d.). No, God had to be referring to a creature, with which Job was fully familiar, that was so gargantuan and possessed such strength that even its tail was beyond human control. What other land creature on Earth possesses a tail that merits being compared to a tree? There is no such creature—except a dinosaur.


Take, for example, Apatosaurus, whose overall body length could reach 90 feet, which included a long, prodigious tail “held together with 82 bones” (Viegas, 2011). Argentinosaurus stood 70 feet high (about the size of a six story building), weighed 100 tons, and was some 120 feet in length (three long school buses placed end to end), with over a third of that length consisting of its massive tail. Diplodocus was an enormous-tailed giant, measuring some 90 feet long, with a 26 foot long neck and a 45 foot long tail (Col, 1996a). The creature’s name derives from the Greek words diploos (double) and dokos (beam), a reference to its double-beamed chevron bones located in the underside of the tail (“Diplodocus,” 2011). Scientists think the 85-foot-long Brachiosaurus used its long, thick tail to brush away most attackers (Col, 1996b). Similarly, Supersaurus measured about 138 feet, with perhaps nearly half that length consisting of its tree-like tail also used for protection (Col, 1996c). Seismosaurus measured from 130-170 feet long with a tail that contained at least one unusual wedge-shaped vertebra that gave it a kink, again, enabling it to use its movable tail for protection (Col, 1996d). [NOTE: The word translated “moves” (NKJV/ASV), “bends” (NASB), “sways” (NIV), or “makes stiff” (ESV/RSV) is from a Hebrew verb (chah-phetz) that means “to bend down” (Brown, et al., p. 343; Harris, et al., p. 311), “to bend, to curve” (Gesenius, p. 296), “to bend, incline” (Davidson, 1850, p. 270), “let hang” (Holladay, 1988, p. 112), or “stretch out” (Botterweck, 1986, 5:92).]


Picture a mere human wrapping his arms around a 40-foot circumference cedar tree that is 85 feet long, and then attempting to sway or swing it back and forth like the tail of an animal. The image is laughable! And God’s point was just that poignant and penetrating. The comparison was sufficient to evoke the desired effect in Job, who humbly exclaimed: “I know that You can do everything, and that no purpose of Yours can be withheld from You…. Therefore I have uttered what I did not understand, things too wonderful for me, which I did not know…. Therefore I abhor myself, and repent in dust and ashes” (Job 42:2-6).
The imposing intimidation of modern pseudo-science, that dominates the intellectual landscape of the world, has succeeded in pressuring many to compromise the biblical text in hopes of retaining what they conceive to be academic legitimacy and sophistication. Nevertheless, abundant bona fide evidence exists to demonstrate that dinosaurs were created by God on the same day of Creation as humans (Genesis 1:24-31), that dinosaurs and humans once cohabitated (cf. Lyons and Butt, 2008), and that the incredible creature of Job 40 was, in fact, some kind of dinosaur.


Baker, Richard St. Barbe (1974), Famous Trees of Bible Lands (London: H.H. Greaves).
Barnes, Albert (1847), Notes on the Old Testament: Isaiah (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 2005 reprint).
Botterweck, G. Johannes and Helmer Ringgren (1986), Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans).
Brown, Francis, S.R. Driver, and Charles Briggs (1906), The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 2004 reprint).
Col, Jeananda (1996a), “Diplodocus,” Enchanted Learning, http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/dinosaurs/dinos/Diplodocus.shtml.
Col, Jeananda (1996b), “Brachiosaurus,” Enchanted Learning, http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/dinosaurs/dinos/Brachiosaurus.shtml.
Col, Jeananda (1996c), “Supersaurus,” Enchanted Learning, http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/dinosaurs/dinos/Supersaurus.shtml.
Col, Jeananda (1996d), “Seismosaurus,” Enchanted Learning, http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/dinosaurs/dinos/Seismosaurus.shtml.
Davidson, Benjamin (1850), The Analytical Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1970 reprint).
“Diplodocus” (2011), Nature: Prehistoric Life, BBC, http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/life/Diplodocus.
Fish, Henry C. (1876), Bible Lands Illustrated (New York: A.S. Barnes).
Gesenius, William (1847), Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1979 reprint).
Harris, R. Laird, Gleason Archer, Jr. and Bruce Waltke, eds. (1980), Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament (Chicago, IL: Moody).
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Holladay, William (1988),  A Concise Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans).
Lyons, Eric and Kyle Butt (2008), The Dinosaur Delusion (Montgomery, AL: Apologetics Press).
Padfield, David (2011), “Bible Times: Trees of the Bible,” http://www.padfield.com/bible-times/trees/.
Parkhurst, John (1799), An Hebrew and English Lexicon (London: F. Davis), http://books.google.com/books?id=D3pHAAAAYAAJ&pg= RA1-PA678&lpg=RA1-PA678&dq=cedrus+conifera&source=bl&ots= HfK67OCFSi&sig= n1AMTXpHWZKCyXj5qev3h3g_jpU&hl=en&ei=1YSsTdvMH4_AgQfdkO3zBQ&sa= X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum= 2&ved= 0CBsQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=cedrus%20conifera&f=false.
“Trees in the Land of the Bible” (2011), Jewish National Fund, http://www.kkl.org.il/kkl/english/ main_subject/education/education/ trees%20in%20the%20land%20of%20the%20bible.x.
Van-Lennep, Henry J. (1875), Bible Lands: Their Modern Customs and Manners (New York: Harper).
Viegas, Jennifer (2011), “Apatosaurus: The Dinosaur Formerly Known as Brontosaurus,” Discovery Channel, http://dsc.discovery.com/dinosaurs/apatosaurus.html.
Wigram, George W. (1890), The Englishman’s Hebrew and Chaldee Concordance of the Old Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1980 reprint).