1. Those who think that grape-juice just turns into drinkable fermented wine, that it just makes itself, need to listen to the wine industrialists. Winemaking was always that: winemaking. The ancient nations had to work at it and that’s part of the reason that the word “wine” has been claimed exclusively for manufactured wine! Winemakers would have a fit if you told them their wine was nothing but grape-juice.

2. But there’s abundant literary evidence from Roman times that not everyone wanted to make fermented wine. We’re told of many ways in which people could and did keep non-fermented wine from fermenting and one of them was the use of sulphur, a prime inhibitor of fermentation used by the modern wine industry. [Patrick McGovern, Ancient Wine, The Search...Princeton University Press, 2003, page 57, tells us ancient winemakers didn’t have sulphur as an inhibitor until the Roman period—he must have meant (as the index suggests) that there is no evidence of it. Sulphur mines were known from the Red Sea to the Zagros Mountains, and southern Palestine had more than enough to get Sodom’s attention. Sulphur technology was well established in the millennia before Jesus and the idea that the ancient winemakers hadn’t learned that there were things—sulphur among them—that prevented or retarded the fermentation process until the Roman period is too hard to swallow.]

3. Ancients who used skins as water and wine "bottles" had to treat the skins for various uses (“tanners” would have known all about that). It’s interesting that the Bible doesn’t ever speak of a tanning industry though in a settled society “tanners” would always be needed (“Simon the ‘tanner’” is in Acts 10:6). The same is true about winemaking. Though wine drinking is at least as old as Noah and there are plenty of general remarks about the process there is no development in the Bible anything like, “Here is how wine is made and kept.” You hear a lot of that among those scientific/agricultural types in Greece and later in Roman times but we’re not to suppose because the OT didn’t mention it that the technology wasn’t known to Semitic ancients—we know it was! The Bible simply doesn’t talk about it.

Moving on.

Matthew 9:14-17 gives us two “parables”. Jesus is responding to the question about set fasts of the Pharisees and the disciples of the Baptist. There was some criticism that Jesus and his group had no ritual fasts and Jesus responds by saying that devotion to God and a healthy response to life requires spontaneity and fitness to the circumstances.

No one wears a black arm-band or puts a wreath on their door unless the occasion calls for it. We don’t dace happy jigs at a funeral (well, maybe in New Orleans) or dress in mourning attire at a wedding. To fast without reason is to “manufacture” piety and engage in a contrived religious ordinance. Unless there is heartfelt repentance or mourning or some such inner experience the fasting ritual is without meaning. The parables are a call to heartfelt and spontaneous religion and especially in the face of criticism from those who (it appears) felt superior. An unshrunk piece of cloth doesn’t belong on an old garment; unfermented new wine does not belong in an old wineskin and fasting didn’t belong where the heart and the circumstances didn’t warrant it.

Imagine someone comes to work wearing a black armband. You go to him and express your sorrow for his loss and he cheerfully says he has suffered no loss. You ask about the mourning symbol and he says he just decided to wear it. You shrug, go about your business and for many months he wears his armband. One morning he rebukes you for joking and not commiserating with him and you say you didn’t know he was in mourning and he points to his black armband.

His pointless wearing the insignia of mourning not only destroyed the symbol, leaving it meaningless, it blinded you to the occasion—a time when mourning was appropriate. Something like that, I think, was what Jesus had in mind.

I see nothing in the text at all about someone trying to join the Old Covenant to the New Covenant or combine “legalism” and “grace”. I think Jesus’ teaching is just as potent and needful for Christians who make no attempts to put a patch of the New Covenant on the Old Covenant or vice versa.

Moving on.

See if what follows makes sense to you. Whatever the point of the two parables, the imagery should be plain enough. There’s a piece of “unshrunk” cloth (Mark 2:21) that’s sewn to an old (already shrunk) garment and there’s new unfermented wine (oinon neon—accusative) put in an old wineskin (2:22 and parallels).
In saying, “Nobody puts new wine in old wine skins” Jesus obviously is calling on common sense and practice. Yes, but what common practice?

It’s generally said, and on the surface it makes sense to say, that the “new wine” was not put in the old, already stretched and brittle wineskins because in the course of fermentation the production of carbon dioxide gas would be too great for the old skin and it would burst (so Ross, Bandstra and many others). But there’s a problem with that explanation!

A gallon of non-fermented wine in the process of fermentation would produce enough CO2 to burst any skin new or old if the skin was ventless. If you purposed to make fermented wine you would not only choose a new skin (rather than one with dregs of ferment, moulds and fungi now clinging to it) you would leave a vent to allow the gas to escape (Job 32:19). But if you purposed fermented wine and left a vent it wouldn’t make any difference if the skin was new or old—the gas would be no threat!

So what was Jesus talking about? If he had been talking about someone purposing to make fermented wine he must have forgotten that they vented the bags precisely to prevent bursting. No, it appears Jesus was talking about a sealed, ventless skin otherwise the skin wouldn’t be in danger of bursting. But if that’s true then he wouldn’t have had the manufacture of fermented wine in view because an unvented skin would burst, new or old. The aim was to keep the non-fermented grape juice from fermenting so it’d be put in a skin treated for the purpose—“tanners” would have known all about that.

Making the parable “work”
In making alcoholic wine they wouldn’t have chosen a ventless skin.
But Jesus had a ventless skin in mind.
He began with unfermented wine because if the wine had already fermented it would not have produced CO2 to threaten the skin and the parable wouldn’t have worked.

If he had begun with partly fermented wine he wouldn’t have spoken of a ventless skin. Their common sense and practice wouldn’t have allowed them to use a ventless skin and the parable wouldn’t have worked.

He had a ventless skin in mind for the gas production in a vented skin would not have been a threat to any skin (new or old) and the parable wouldn’t have worked.

So it seems to me we’re compelled to say
1) Jesus started with unfermented wine,
2) spoke of it going into a ventless skin and
3) not generating explosive CO2
4) and the wine and the skin are safe.

Taking it that the above is a fair understanding of the situation some things seem surely to follow. While it was certainly common for people to manufacture intoxicating wine it must also have been common for them to “bottle” and keep non-intoxicating wine otherwise Jesus couldn’t have implied it was common sense and practice.

Taking it to be a fair understanding of the case, we have Jesus calling the unfermented liquid that goes into the skin “oinon neon” and then, twice calling it “oinos”. That would mean that it’s perfectly acceptable in Jesus’ day to call unfermented grape juice “oinos” and that the NT does in fact speak that way on this occasion.

Finally—it sometimes happened that the new, sweet wine was allowed to begin to ferment before being sealed and it swelled to bursting point. Here’s what fuming Elihu says: “My heart is indeed like wine that has no vent; like new wineskins, it is ready to burst.” (Job 32:18-19 and the rest of the versions). Two things worth noting: Elihu calls the wine yayin and the LXX has gleukos (“sweet”—the word “wine” is contextually implied) and rendered “sweet wine” in English. It is rendered as “new wine” in Acts 2:13 and in Josephus’ Antiquities 2.5.2 the juice pressed from the grapes for the Pharaoh to drink is called gleukos [Philo calls it oinos.]

If we’re allowed to parallel Elihu’s words and Jesus’ words, and I don’t see why not, we have yayin put in a ventless skin. But if it was unfermented and it was called yayin perhaps we should allow the generic nature of yayin.

·         It appears that oinos and neos oinos can be used to speak of unfermented wine.
·         It appears that it was commonplace for people to put unfermented wine in skins with no intention of making fermented wine.
·         It appears that gleukos [“sweet” (unfermented wine)] is a legitimate translation of the Hebrew yayin.

[Take issue with the above if you're in the mood.]

©2004 Jim McGuiggan. All materials are free to be copied and used as long as money is not being made.

Thanks to brother Ed Healy, for allowing me to post from his website, theabidingword.com.

The Silence of the Scriptures: An Argument for Inspiration by Wayne Jackson, M.A.


The Silence of the Scriptures: An Argument for Inspiration

by  Wayne Jackson, M.A.

J.W. McGarvey (1829-1911) once was characterized by The London Times as the greatest Bible scholar on either side of the Atlantic. There is no question but that the professor of sacred history in the College of the Bible at Lexington, Kentucky (where he taught for forty-six years) was one of the most skillful defenders of the Scriptures in his day. His books on Christian evidences, and other topics, are still classics and should be circulated widely.
In the summer of 1893, McGarvey delivered a lecture on the “Inspiration of the Scriptures” before the YMCA at the University of Missouri. His arguments appealed mainly to certain internal evidences from the New Testament itself that argue for the Bible’s supernatural origin. One of McGarvey’s points was this: the very brevity of the New Testament narratives is astounding. For example, in connection with some of the most dramatic episodes of the New Testament, where we would expect the writers to satisfy our longing for loads of details, the sacred narrative contains only abbreviated descriptions.
Consider the episode of Christ’s baptism. How many pages might have been consumed in describing this epochal event, had such been left to the literary skill of human authors? God broke a verbal silence of fifteen centuries and audibly acknowledged His beloved Son. And yet, Matthew records the circumstance with but a dozen lines, Mark and Luke utilize about half that space, and John has only a sentence of about twelve words describing the occasion. McGarvey asked: “What man with a writer’s instinct could have stopped short of many pages in describing the scene so as to do it justice?” (n.d., p. 6). The scholarly professor cited other equally impressive examples of the startling restraint employed by the New Testament writers. It is quite reasonable, he argued, to conclude that God Himself was supervising the composition of the documents. The Bible was not designed to satisfy our inquisitiveness. Only such materials as were consistent with the Lord’s higher purpose were incorporated into the text.
McGarvey’s argument is quite compelling. Moreover, we are convinced that it may be pursued even further. A strong case can be made in favor of the Bible’s inspiration on the basis of things that it omits altogether. In other words, the silence of the Scriptures—in areas where human curiosity clamors for additional information—is another internal evidence that reflects the heavenly origin of the biblical documents. Let us consider this matter.


The Bible begins with the simple declarative, “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.” Neither in Genesis 1, nor elsewhere in Holy Writ, is any attempt made to explain the origin of the Creator of the Universe. His self-existence is assumed as a primary truth. The prophets speak of His eternal presence without any adorning explanation. From everlasting to everlasting, He is the eternal God (cf. Psalm 90:2 and Deuteronomy 33:27).
The religions of ancient paganism postulate bizarre origins for their deities. Egyptian theology “dwelt on the birth of the gods from Osiris, and told how he, the sun, brought forth the seven great planetary gods, and then the twelve humbler gods of the signs of the zodiac; they, in their turn, producing the twenty-eight gods presiding over the stations of the moon, the seventy-two companions of the sun, and other deities” (Geikie, n.d. 1:27). How significant it is that Moses, who grew up in Egypt, incorporated no such foolishness into the Genesis record. A Babylonian creation epic, Enuma elish, tells how pagan deities, Apsu and Tiamat, “procreated the other gods” (Mitchell, 1988, p. 69). The mythology of India spoke of Brahma, “the father of all creatures,” being hatched from a great egg of golden splendor. The Greeks constructed genealogical tables chronicling the history of their gods, etc., but the Scriptures stand aloof from such absurdities.


The literature of heathenism is filled with representations of its gods. For instance, Baal, a Canaanite deity, frequently became a factor in the apostasy of the Hebrew people. Baal was a god of fertility. He is depicted on ancient monuments holding a lightning bolt in his hand (suggestive of his control of the weather); at other times his genital organ is prominently displayed because he was the “god of sex.” His mother, Asherah, the patron goddess of sex, is depicted in a vulgar fashion in the artwork of ancient Ras Shamra (see Boyd, 1969, pp. 117-122). El, the husband of Asherah, is portrayed as an old man with white hair and a beard (Smick, 1988, 1:411). Many other pagan gods likewise are represented quite graphically.
The God of the Bible, however, never is given any sort of a physical description. While it is true that anthropomorphic (meaning “man form”) language is employed frequently in Scripture to denote certain attributes of the Lord (e.g., the “eyes,” “hands,” etc., of the Lord)—because such figures are necessary to accommodate a human level of comprehension—nevertheless, the divine writers clearly stress that God is a spirit being and, as such, has no physical composition (John 4:24; Luke 24:39). He is invisible to human sight (1 Timothy 1:17; 6:16). If the Bible is a work of fiction, why is there no description of God?


When William Manchester wrote his acclaimed biography, American Caesar—Douglas McArthur, he referenced descriptions of the illustrious military commander on more than seventy pages (1978, p. 781). By way of contrast (even though Jesus Christ is the central character of the Scriptures, and is found either directly or indirectly in every book of the Bible), there is not one line in the New Testament giving a depiction of His physical attributes. In fact, the only remote reference to Jesus’ appearance is a vague allusion in the book of Isaiah where the Savior is represented as having “no comeliness” that His fellows would consider desirable (Isaiah 53:2). Imagine that. No description is given of the most prominent person of the Bible, the founder of the Christian religion—only a passing prophetic remark that suggests He was less-than-handsome! What group of writers, desiring to ensure the success of Christianity, would have adopted such an approach?


With the exception of the miraculous events connected with the birth of Jesus, we know little of the first thirty years of His life upon this Earth. When He was eight days old, He was circumcised according to Jewish law (Luke 2:21). Thirty-three days later He was presented in the temple (Luke 2:22-39). There is the account of the visit of those wise-men from the east (Matthew 2:1-12), and then the flight into Egypt to escape the wrath of Herod (Matthew 2:13-23). There is a general reference to His eventual settlement at Nazareth (Matthew 2:23:Luke 2:39-40), and then the record of a visit to Jerusalem when Jesus was twelve years old (Luke 2:41-50). Following this, there is a blank space in the narrative that covers eighteen years in the life of Christ. Other than the generic notation that He was advancing in wisdom, stature, and in favor with God and men (Luke 2:51-52), we know absolutely nothing of this time span. Are we not curious? Would not an average human biographer have given some interesting data? That is a normal expectation. It was this very circumstance that called forth a number of ancient spurious writings, known collectively as the Apocryphal Gospels. These extra-canonical documents arose because of the desire to have a fuller knowledge of certain periods of the life of Christ that the genuine Gospels omitted. Consider, for instance, the Childhood Gospel of Thomas. It depicts the boy Jesus making little birds out of clay and causing them to fly away. Again, when another boy accidentally bumped into Him, Jesus supposedly caused him to die immediately (see Findlay, 1906, 1:671-685). No such absurdities deface the New Testament.


In addition to the foregoing cases, there are scores of biblical contexts within which there are strange absences of information—from a purely human viewpoint.
(1) Moses is the most prominent character of the Old Testament. He is mentioned more than 750 times in the Hebrew Scriptures, and approximately 80 times in the New Testament. At a very early age he was adopted by Pharaoh’s daughter (a brilliant strategy by his mother to save her son’s life). He thus was reared as an Egyptian prince. The first forty years of his life were spent in the environment of Egypt’s splendor and power. Between Exodus 2:10 and 2:11, however, there is a silent gap of four decades. Only the book of Acts briefly says: “And Moses was instructed in all the wisdom of the Egyptians; and he was mighty in his words and works” (7:22). What were those words and works? What exciting events occurred during that first third of Moses’ life? We long to know, but the Holy Spirit did not see fit to supply the information.
(2) The most revered item of furniture in Israel’s sacred tabernacle was the “Ark of the Covenant,” that small wooden chest, overlaid with gold, which contained the tables of the ten commandments, a pot of manna, and Aaron’s rod that had budded miraculously. What happened to the ark? Sometime after the chest was placed in Solomon’s temple (1 Kings 8:1-11), it simply vanished. Movies and television specials have speculated regarding its fate, but no one knows what happened to it. Surely a non-inspired literary genius would not have left the ark’s destiny shrouded in obscurity. Indeed, the apocryphal book of 2 Maccabees has Jeremiah hiding it in a cave until the time when God would restore His people (2:4-8). Men cannot resist the temptation to speak where God has been silent.
(3) Joseph of Nazareth was the foster father of Jesus, and Mary was his mother. The benevolent character of Joseph is tenderly revealed in Matthew 1. He was willing to endure the scorn of his peers by taking his pregnant betrothed into his home. What happened to him? He simply disappears from the New Testament record following that journey to Jerusalem when Jesus was twelve years old (Luke 2:41ff.; cf. Matthew 12:46). And what of Mary? Surely she was one of the noblest women God ever made. Apparently she was in the care of the apostle John following the death of her son (John 19:26-27). We find her in the company of the disciples following Jesus’ ascension (Acts 1:14). But how did she eventually die? There is not a clue. What human biographer would have left these matters dangling?
(4) Is it not most unusual that there are no descriptions of the Lord’s apostles in the New Testament, and, except for a few scant references (see Luke 4:38; 1 Corinthians 9:5), there is no information regarding their families.
(5) The mission of John the Baptizer was to prepare the Jews for Christ. Accordingly, John immersed those who repented of, and confessed, their sins (Matthew 3:6-8). His baptism was “for the remission of sins” (Mark 1:4), and those who rejected it were repudiating the very counsel of God Himself (Luke 7:30). Unquestionably the Lord’s apostles submitted to John’s baptism, but where is the record of such? One can only infer it. Furthermore, where, after the establishment of Christianity, is there any mention of the evangelistic work of Andrew, Simon the Zealot, Thomas, et al.? The labors of most of the apostles are missing from the record. Who in the world, following common literary impulses, is going to pass over things of this nature? Finally, with the sole exception of James (see Acts 12:1), there is not a word as to how the apostles died.
(6) When Jesus died, following His six hours of agony on the cross, the veil of the temple was torn in two from top to bottom, there was a tremendous earthquake, and, perhaps most shocking of all, the tombs in Jerusalem were opened, “and many bodies of the saints that had fallen asleep were raised; and coming forth out of the tombs after his resurrection they entered into the holy city and appeared unto many” (Matthew 27:52-53). Did these ex-corpses speak to folks on the street? What was the effect of this miracle upon the citizens of the city? What ultimately happened to those saints? Are we to be left hanging? Additionally, what was the impact of that severing of the temple’s veil? There is not a word concerning the panic that must have seized the Jewish leaders.
(7) The book of Acts is one of the great adventure narratives of the New Testament. It tells of the establishment and growth of Christianity. A major component of that expansion was the ministry of the brilliant zealot, Saul of Tarsus (later to become known as Paul, the apostle). Paul’s conversion and his fruitful missionary campaigns are detailed in thrilling fashion from Acts 9 onward. Towards the end of Acts, Paul is arrested as a result of Jewish harassment. Ultimately, he appeals his case to Caesar (the Roman Supreme Court, if you will), and is taken to Rome. As the book of Acts concludes, Paul has been under house-arrest—daily chained to a Roman soldier—for two years. But Acts then ends quite abruptly. When did Paul appear before Caesar (Acts 27:24)? What did he say? What effect was produced?
(8) There is a considerable amount of extra-biblical evidence indicating that the author of the third Gospel was Luke, the physician (Colossians 4:14). This view was “universally believed” by the middle of the second century. No one “speaks doubtfully on this point” (Plummer, 1896, p. xvi). Moreover, both external and internal evidence suggests that the author of the third Gospel also penned the book of Acts. The Muratorian Canon (a fragmentary list of New Testament books from the late second century A.D.) states that Luke compiled “the Acts of all the Apostles” for “most excellent Theophilus (see Acts 1:1; cf. Luke 1:3). Luke was an associate of Paul on several of the apostle’s missionary journeys and during the dramatic voyage to Rome. This circumstance is reflected in the “we” segments of the book of Acts (16:10-17; 20:5-21:18; 27:1-28:16). The character of Luke’s writings reveals that he was a brilliant scholar and a devoted companion to Paul—to the very end of the great apostle’s life (see 2 Timothy 4:11). And yet, as valuable as his contributions were, the New Testament student knows absolutely nothing of his background (e.g., where he was born, his educational training, his family associations, his conversion, etc.). Nor is anything known of his death. He is the only Gentile writer of the New Testament (his literary contributions comprising about 25% of that document), yet he is ever discreetly in the background. He is named in only three places in the entire New Testament (Colossians 4:14; Philemon 24; 2 Timothy 4:11). Given the propensity of ordinary journalists, would any writer—who played such a prominent role in the affairs he chronicled—have so veiled himself? Surely, to the analytical person, this must suggest the superintendence of the divine Spirit of God.


What shall we make of these—and many other—puzzling omissions from the sacred text? Simply this: the Holy Spirit was the guiding hand behind the composition of the Bible. He incorporated into the sacred volume only such materials as were germane to the divine purpose. He did not cater to human curiosity. Thus, Bible inspiration is demonstrated as much by its exclusions as by its inclusions. The wide variety of evidence documenting the authenticity of the Holy Scriptures is truly profound.


Boyd, Robert T. (1969), A Pictorial Guide to Biblical Archaeology (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker).
Findlay, A.F. (1906), “Gospels (Apocryphal),” A Dictionary of Christ and the Gospels, ed. James Hastings (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark).
Geikie, Cunningham (n.d.), Hours with the Bible (New York: Hurst).
McGarvey, J.W. (n.d.), Sermons (Cincinnati, OH: Standard).
Manchester, William (1978), American Caesar—Douglas McArthur, 1880-1964 (Boston: Little, Brown).
Mitchell, T.C. (1988), The Bible in the British Museum (London: British Museum).
Plummer, Alfred (1896), The Gospel According to Luke (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark).
Smick, Elmer B. (1988), Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible, ed. Walter Elwell (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker).

From Mark Copeland... Journeys In Macedonia And Greece (Acts 20:1-6)



Journeys In Macedonia And Greece (20:1-6)


1. The turmoil over Paul in Ephesus provided an opportune time for him to
   a. He had made plans to go to Macedonia, Achaia, Jerusalem, Rome - Ac 19:21
   b. He had sent Timothy to Macedonia and on to Corinth - Ac 19:22; 1Co 4:17
   c. He had also sent Titus and another brother to Corinth - 2Co 8:6,
      16-19; 12:17-18

2. And so Paul left Ephesus and headed toward Macedonia...
   a. After embracing (encouraging, ESV) the disciples at Ephesus - Ac 20:1
   b. At Troas (still in Asia Minor), he found an "open door" to preach 
      the gospel - 2Co 2:12
   c. But not finding Titus, Paul continued on toward Macedonia - 2Co 12:13

[With anxiety over the condition of the church at Corinth, Paul continued
on his journeys to Macedonia and Greece.  Luke records very little of 
this part of Paul's travels, but by harmonizing what Luke wrote with what
Paul wrote in his epistles, we can glean the following regarding...]


      1. Paul preached throughout Macedonia (northern Greece) - Ac 20:2
         a. He had preached in Macedonia on his second journey - Ac 16:11-17:15
         b. When he had established churches in Philippi, Thessalonica,
            and Berea
         c. On this trip he may have ventured to Illyricum - cf. Ro 15:19
      2. Paul found Titus with comforting news from Corinth - 2Co 7:5-7,
      3. The Macedonian brethren gave generously for the relief of saints
         in Jerusalem - 2Co 8:1-5
      4. Timothy returned to Paul, and joined him in writing 2nd 
         Corinthians - 2Co 1:1
      5. Titus and "two brethren" are sent to Corinth - 2Co 8:16-24
         a. Likely taking Second Corinthians
         b. To assist the Corinthians concerning the collection - 2Co 8:6-8; 9:1-5

   B. GREECE...
      1. Paul spent just three months - Ac 20:2-3
      2. This was his third visit to Corinth - 2Co 12:14
         a. A visit he hoped would not be sorrowful - 2Co 2:1
         b. A visit he hoped would not be embarrassing for them - 2Co 9:3-4
         c. A visit he hoped would not require stern judgment - 2Co 12:20-21; 13:1-3
      3. Paul wrote Romans (about 57 A.D.) from Corinth - Ro 16:23; cf.
         1Co 1:14; 2Ti 4:20
      4. Paul's acquaintances and companions while in Corinth
         a. Phoebe, servant of the church in nearby Cenchrea - Ro 16:1-2
         b. Timothy, Lucius, Jason, and Sosipater, Paul's countrymen - Ro 16:21
         c. Tertius, writer for Paul - Ro 16:22
         d. Gaius, host of Paul and the church - Ro 16:23
         e. Erastus, treasurer of the city, and Quartus, a brother - Ro 16:23
      5. Paul's plans for when he leaves Corinth
         a. To visit Rome and eventually Spain - Ro 1:8-13; 15:22-24
         b. But first he must go to Jerusalem with the contribution for 
            the needy saints - Ro 15:25-29

      1. Paul's plan to sail straight to Syria was spoiled by a plot
         against him - Ac 20:3
      2. Paul decided to go through Macedonia to Asia - Ac 20:3
      3. Seven travelling companions went on to wait for Paul at Troas
         - Ac 20:4-5
      4. We will review the seven companions shortly (see below)

      1. At Philippi, Luke evidently joins Paul - Ac 20:5 (note the use
         of "we")
      2. We last read of Luke with Paul at Philippi on the second
         journey - Ac 16:11-16
         3. Paul and Luke sailed from Philippi after the Days of
            Unleavened Bread (Passover) - Ac 20:6

[In five days, they arrived at Troas where they stayed seven days (Ac
20:6).  There they rejoined their other traveling companions (Ac 20:4),
at whom we shall now take a closer look...]


      1. Sopater of Berea
         a. A member of the church in Berea - Ac 20:4; cf. Ac 17:10-15
         b. One of those who were more noble-minded? - Ac 17:11
         c. Possibly the same man as Sosipater - Ro 16:21
      2. Aristarchus of Thessalonica
         a. A member of the church in Thessalonica - Ac 20:4; cf. Ac 17:1-4; 1Th 1:1; 2Th 1:1
         b. Who was taken into the theater in the Diana incident at
            Ephesus - Ac 19:29
         c. Who travelled with Paul and Luke to Rome - Ac 27:2
         d. Described as a "fellow prisoner" with Paul in Rome - Col 4:10
         e. Described also as a "fellow laborer" with Paul in Rome - Phm 23   
      3. Secundus of Thessalonica
         a. A member of the church in Thessalonica - Ac 20:4; cf. Ac 17:1-4; 1Th 1:1; 2Th 1:1
         b. His name means "second"; little more is known of him 
      4. Gaius of Derbe
         a. A member of the church in Derbe - Ac 20:4; cf. Ac 14:20-21
         b. Other men named Gaius in the scriptures
            1) Gaius of Macedonia, who with Aristarchus were taken into
               the theater at Ephesus - Ac 19:29
            2) Gaius of Corinth, Paul's convert and host of the church 
               - 1Co 1:14; Ro 16:23
            3) Gaius the beloved recipient of John's 3rd epistle - 3Jn 1
      5. Timothy of Lystra
         a. The young disciple at Lystra personally selected by Paul - Ac 16:1-4
         b. Who fulfilled special and often dangerous missions for Paul 
            - Ac 17:13-14; 1Th 3:1-8; Ac 19:22; 1Co 4:17; Php 2:19; 1Ti 1:3-4,18-19
         c. A true fellow-laborer in the gospel, none other like-minded 
            as Paul - Php 2:19-22
         d. Co-authored with Paul in writing six epistles - 2Co, Php,
            Co, 1Th, 2Th, Phile
         e. Recipient of two epistles from Paul - 1Ti, 2Ti
         f. As Paul faced death, he asked Timothy to come (which involved
            risk) - 2Ti 4:9 
         g. Timothy himself was imprisoned at some point, but later
            released - He 13:23
      6. Tychicus of Asia
         a. A Christian from Asia Minor (western Turkey) - Ac 20:4
         b. Sent with the letter to the Ephesians, a beloved brother and
            faithful minister - Ep 6:21
         c. Carried the letter to the Colossians, together with Onesimus
            - Col 4:7-9
         d. Sent to Ephesus on another occasion - 2Ti 4:12
         e. And possibly to Crete on another occasion - Tit 3:12
         f. Tradition holds that he died a martyr - Holman Bible
      7. Trophimus of Asia
         a. A Christian from Asia Minor (western Turkey) - Ac 20:4
         b. From Ephesus, falsely accused as taken by Paul into the
            temple - Ac 21:29
         c. Left sick in Miletus toward the end of Paul's life - 2Ti 4:20
      8. Luke of Philippi
         a. The author of the gospel of Luke and Acts - Lk 1:1-4; Ac 1:1-3
         b. Who joined Paul on his second journey at Troas - Ac 16:11
         c. Then remained at Philippi when Paul when on to Thessalonica 
            - Ac 16:15; 17:1
         d. Now to rejoin Paul as he passed through Philippi on his third
            journey - Ac 20:5-6
         e. From the use of personal pronouns ("we", "us"), we learn that
            Luke accompanied Paul from this point forward until Paul's 
            arrival in Rome - Ac 28:16

      1. In discussing the collection for the saints, Paul mentioned it 
         would be taken by representatives from the churches - 1Co 16:1-4
      2. The intention was to do things honorable in the sight of all
         men - 2Co 8:18-21
      3. It is most likely that the traveling companions were 
         representatives of the churches they were from in regards to the
         collection for the needy saints in Jerusalem - cf. Ro 15:25-26

      1. That the spread of the gospel in first century was a team effort
         a. Not just the "first string" like the apostles
         b. But many others we might call "God's second string"
      2. Many others served at great personal expense and sacrifice
         a. As emissaries of the apostles, bearing their letters
         b. Whose lives were often in grave danger
         c. Who suffered imprisonment themselves, and sometimes martyrdom
      3. The extra effort to do things honorable in the sight of all men
         - cf. 2Co 8:18-21
         a. Transparent in their dealings involving money
         b. Making sure that they were beyond reproach


1. A quick reading of Paul's journeys in Macedonia and Greece may not
   seem to reveal much at first...

2. But when harmonized with what is recorded elsewhere in the 
   a. We can learn more about what happened during this portion of Paul's
      third journey
   b. We can be inspired by what we know about those who travelled with

For seven days Paul and his traveling companions stayed in Troas (Ac
20:6).  What happened before they left will be the focus of our next
two studies... 

Executable Outlines, Copyright © Mark A. Copeland, 2013

From Gary... Bible Reading July 15

Bible Reading  

July 15

The World English Bible

July 15
1 Chronicles 7-9

1Ch 7:1 Of the sons of Issachar: Tola, and Puah, Jashub, and Shimron, four.
1Ch 7:2 The sons of Tola: Uzzi, and Rephaiah, and Jeriel, and Jahmai, and Ibsam, and Shemuel, heads of their fathers' houses, to wit, of Tola; mighty men of valor in their generations: their number in the days of David was twenty-two thousand six hundred.
1Ch 7:3 The sons of Uzzi: Izrahiah. The sons of Izrahiah: Michael, and Obadiah, and Joel, Isshiah, five; all of them chief men.
1Ch 7:4 With them, by their generations, after their fathers' houses, were bands of the army for war, thirty-six thousand; for they had many wives and sons.
1Ch 7:5 Their brothers among all the families of Issachar, mighty men of valor, reckoned in all by genealogy, were eighty-seven thousand.
1Ch 7:6 The sons of Benjamin: Bela, and Becher, and Jediael, three.
1Ch 7:7 The sons of Bela: Ezbon, and Uzzi, and Uzziel, and Jerimoth, and Iri, five; heads of fathers' houses, mighty men of valor; and they were reckoned by genealogy twenty-two thousand thirty-four.
1Ch 7:8 The sons of Becher: Zemirah, and Joash, and Eliezer, and Elioenai, and Omri, and Jeremoth, and Abijah, and Anathoth, and Alemeth. All these were the sons of Becher.
1Ch 7:9 They were reckoned by genealogy, after their generations, heads of their fathers' houses, mighty men of valor, twenty thousand two hundred.
1Ch 7:10 The sons of Jediael: Bilhan. The sons of Bilhan: Jeush, and Benjamin, and Ehud, and Chenaanah, and Zethan, and Tarshish, and Ahishahar.
1Ch 7:11 All these were sons of Jediael, according to the heads of their fathers' houses, mighty men of valor, seventeen thousand and two hundred, who were able to go forth in the army for war.
1Ch 7:12 Shuppim also, and Huppim, the sons of Ir, Hushim, the sons of Aher.
1Ch 7:13 The sons of Naphtali: Jahziel, and Guni, and Jezer, and Shallum, the sons of Bilhah.
1Ch 7:14 The sons of Manasseh: Asriel, whom his concubine the Aramitess bore: she bore Machir the father of Gilead:
1Ch 7:15 and Machir took a wife of Huppim and Shuppim, whose sister's name was Maacah; and the name of the second was Zelophehad: and Zelophehad had daughters.
1Ch 7:16 Maacah the wife of Machir bore a son, and she named him Peresh; and the name of his brother was Sheresh; and his sons were Ulam and Rakem.
1Ch 7:17 The sons of Ulam: Bedan. These were the sons of Gilead the son of Machir, the son of Manasseh.
1Ch 7:18 His sister Hammolecheth bore Ishhod, and Abiezer, and Mahlah.
1Ch 7:19 The sons of Shemida were Ahian, and Shechem, and Likhi, and Aniam.
1Ch 7:20 The sons of Ephraim: Shuthelah, and Bered his son, and Tahath his son, and Eleadah his son, and Tahath his son,
1Ch 7:21 and Zabad his son, and Shuthelah his son, and Ezer, and Elead, whom the men of Gath who were born in the land killed, because they came down to take away their livestock.
1Ch 7:22 Ephraim their father mourned many days, and his brothers came to comfort him.
1Ch 7:23 He went in to his wife, and she conceived, and bore a son, and he named him Beriah, because it went evil with his house.
1Ch 7:24 His daughter was Sheerah, who built Beth Horon the lower and the upper, and Uzzen Sheerah.
1Ch 7:25 Rephah was his son, and Resheph, and Telah his son, and Tahan his son,
1Ch 7:26 Ladan his son, Ammihud his son, Elishama his son,
1Ch 7:27 Nun his son, Joshua his son.
1Ch 7:28 Their possessions and habitations were Bethel and its towns, and eastward Naaran, and westward Gezer, with its towns; Shechem also and its towns, to Azzah and its towns;
1Ch 7:29 and by the borders of the children of Manasseh, Beth Shean and its towns, Taanach and its towns, Megiddo and its towns, Dor and its towns. In these lived the children of Joseph the son of Israel.
1Ch 7:30 The sons of Asher: Imnah, and Ishvah, and Ishvi, and Beriah, and Serah their sister.
1Ch 7:31 The sons of Beriah: Heber, and Malchiel, who was the father of Birzaith.
1Ch 7:32 Heber became the father of Japhlet, and Shomer, and Hotham, and Shua their sister.
1Ch 7:33 The sons of Japhlet: Pasach, and Bimhal, and Ashvath. These are the children of Japhlet.
1Ch 7:34 The sons of Shemer: Ahi, and Rohgah, Jehubbah, and Aram.
1Ch 7:35 The sons of Helem his brother: Zophah, and Imna, and Shelesh, and Amal.
1Ch 7:36 The sons of Zophah: Suah, and Harnepher, and Shual, and Beri, and Imrah,
1Ch 7:37 Bezer, and Hod, and Shamma, and Shilshah, and Ithran, and Beera.
1Ch 7:38 The sons of Jether: Jephunneh, and Pispa, and Ara.
1Ch 7:39 The sons of Ulla: Arah, and Hanniel, and Rizia.
1Ch 7:40 All these were the children of Asher, heads of the fathers' houses, choice and mighty men of valor, chief of the princes. The number of them reckoned by genealogy for service in war was twenty-six thousand men.
1Ch 8:1 Benjamin became the father of Bela his firstborn, Ashbel the second, and Aharah the third,
1Ch 8:2 Nohah the fourth, and Rapha the fifth.
1Ch 8:3 Bela had sons: Addar, and Gera, and Abihud,
1Ch 8:4 and Abishua, and Naaman, and Ahoah,
1Ch 8:5 and Gera, and Shephuphan, and Huram.
1Ch 8:6 These are the sons of Ehud: these are the heads of fathers' houses of the inhabitants of Geba, and they carried them captive to Manahath:
1Ch 8:7 and Naaman, and Ahijah, and Gera, he carried them captive: and he became the father of Uzza and Ahihud.
1Ch 8:8 Shaharaim became the father of children in the field of Moab, after he had sent them away; Hushim and Baara were his wives.
1Ch 8:9 He became the father of Hodesh his wife, Jobab, and Zibia, and Mesha, and Malcam,
1Ch 8:10 and Jeuz, and Shachia, and Mirmah. These were his sons, heads of fathers' houses.
1Ch 8:11 Of Hushim he became the father of Abitub and Elpaal.
1Ch 8:12 The sons of Elpaal: Eber, and Misham, and Shemed, who built Ono and Lod, with its towns;
1Ch 8:13 and Beriah, and Shema, who were heads of fathers' houses of the inhabitants of Aijalon, who put to flight the inhabitants of Gath;
1Ch 8:14 and Ahio, Shashak, and Jeremoth,
1Ch 8:15 and Zebadiah, and Arad, and Eder,
1Ch 8:16 and Michael, and Ishpah, and Joha, the sons of Beriah,
1Ch 8:17 and Zebadiah, and Meshullam, and Hizki, and Heber,
1Ch 8:18 and Ishmerai, and Izliah, and Jobab, the sons of Elpaal,
1Ch 8:19 and Jakim, and Zichri, and Zabdi,
1Ch 8:20 and Elienai, and Zillethai, and Eliel,
1Ch 8:21 and Adaiah, and Beraiah, and Shimrath, the sons of Shimei,
1Ch 8:22 and Ishpan, and Eber, and Eliel,
1Ch 8:23 and Abdon, and Zichri, and Hanan,
1Ch 8:24 and Hananiah, and Elam, and Anthothijah,
1Ch 8:25 and Iphdeiah, and Penuel, the sons of Shashak,
1Ch 8:26 and Shamsherai, and Shehariah, and Athaliah,
1Ch 8:27 and Jaareshiah, and Elijah, and Zichri, the sons of Jeroham.
1Ch 8:28 These were heads of fathers' houses throughout their generations, chief men: these lived in Jerusalem.
1Ch 8:29 In Gibeon there lived the father of Gibeon, Jeiel, whose wife's name was Maacah;
1Ch 8:30 and his firstborn son Abdon, and Zur, and Kish, and Baal, and Nadab,
1Ch 8:31 and Gedor, and Ahio, and Zecher.
1Ch 8:32 Mikloth became the father of Shimeah. They also lived with their brothers in Jerusalem, over against their brothers.
1Ch 8:33 Ner became the father of Kish; and Kish became the father of Saul; and Saul became the father of Jonathan, and Malchishua, and Abinadab, and Eshbaal.
1Ch 8:34 The son of Jonathan was Merib Baal; and Merib Baal became the father of Micah.
1Ch 8:35 The sons of Micah: Pithon, and Melech, and Tarea, and Ahaz.
1Ch 8:36 Ahaz became the father of Jehoaddah; and Jehoaddah became the father of Alemeth, and Azmaveth, and Zimri; and Zimri became the father of Moza.
1Ch 8:37 Moza became the father of Binea; Raphah was his son, Eleasah his son, Azel his son.
1Ch 8:38 Azel had six sons, whose names are these: Azrikam, Bocheru, and Ishmael, and Sheariah, and Obadiah, and Hanan. All these were the sons of Azel.
1Ch 8:39 The sons of Eshek his brother: Ulam his firstborn, Jeush the second, and Eliphelet the third.
1Ch 8:40 The sons of Ulam were mighty men of valor, archers, and had many sons, and sons' sons, one hundred fifty. All these were of the sons of Benjamin.
1Ch 9:1 So all Israel were reckoned by genealogies; and behold, they are written in the book of the kings of Israel: and Judah was carried away captive to Babylon for their disobedience.
1Ch 9:2 Now the first inhabitants who lived in their possessions in their cities were Israel, the priests, the Levites, and the Nethinim.
1Ch 9:3 In Jerusalem lived of the children of Judah, and of the children of Benjamin, and of the children of Ephraim and Manasseh:
1Ch 9:4 Uthai the son of Ammihud, the son of Omri, the son of Imri, the son of Bani, of the children of Perez the son of Judah.
1Ch 9:5 Of the Shilonites: Asaiah the firstborn, and his sons.
1Ch 9:6 Of the sons of Zerah: Jeuel, and their brothers, six hundred ninety.
1Ch 9:7 Of the sons of Benjamin: Sallu the son of Meshullam, the son of Hodaviah, the son of Hassenuah,
1Ch 9:8 and Ibneiah the son of Jeroham, and Elah the son of Uzzi, the son of Michri, and Meshullam the son of Shephatiah, the son of Reuel, the son of Ibnijah;
1Ch 9:9 and their brothers, according to their generations, nine hundred fifty-six. All these men were heads of fathers' houses by their fathers' houses.
1Ch 9:10 Of the priests: Jedaiah, and Jehoiarib, Jachin,
1Ch 9:11 and Azariah the son of Hilkiah, the son of Meshullam, the son of Zadok, the son of Meraioth, the son of Ahitub, the ruler of the house of God;
1Ch 9:12 and Adaiah the son of Jeroham, the son of Pashhur, the son of Malchijah, and Maasai the son of Adiel, the son of Jahzerah, the son of Meshullam, the son of Meshillemith, the son of Immer;
1Ch 9:13 and their brothers, heads of their fathers' houses, one thousand seven hundred sixty; very able men for the work of the service of the house of God.
1Ch 9:14 Of the Levites: Shemaiah the son of Hasshub, the son of Azrikam, the son of Hashabiah, of the sons of Merari;
1Ch 9:15 and Bakbakkar, Heresh, and Galal, and Mattaniah the son of Mica, the son of Zichri, the son of Asaph,
1Ch 9:16 and Obadiah the son of Shemaiah, the son of Galal, the son of Jeduthun, and Berechiah the son of Asa, the son of Elkanah, who lived in the villages of the Netophathites.
1Ch 9:17 The porters: Shallum, and Akkub, and Talmon, and Ahiman, and their brothers (Shallum was the chief),
1Ch 9:18 who hitherto waited in the king's gate eastward: they were the porters for the camp of the children of Levi.
1Ch 9:19 Shallum the son of Kore, the son of Ebiasaph, the son of Korah, and his brothers, of his father's house, the Korahites, were over the work of the service, keepers of the thresholds of the tent: and their fathers had been over the camp of Yahweh, keepers of the entry.
1Ch 9:20 Phinehas the son of Eleazar was ruler over them in time past, and Yahweh was with him.
1Ch 9:21 Zechariah the son of Meshelemiah was porter of the door of the Tent of Meeting.
1Ch 9:22 All these who were chosen to be porters in the thresholds were two hundred and twelve. These were reckoned by genealogy in their villages, whom David and Samuel the seer did ordain in their office of trust.
1Ch 9:23 So they and their children had the oversight of the gates of the house of Yahweh, even the house of the tent, by wards.
1Ch 9:24 On the four sides were the porters, toward the east, west, north, and south.
1Ch 9:25 Their brothers, in their villages, were to come in every seven days from time to time to be with them:
1Ch 9:26 for the four chief porters, who were Levites, were in an office of trust, and were over the chambers and over the treasuries in the house of God.
1Ch 9:27 They lodged around the house of God, because that duty was on them; and to them pertained its opening morning by morning.
1Ch 9:28 Certain of them were in charge of the vessels of service; for by count were these brought in and by count were these taken out.
1Ch 9:29 Some of them also were appointed over the furniture, and over all the vessels of the sanctuary, and over the fine flour, and the wine, and the oil, and the frankincense, and the spices.
1Ch 9:30 Some of the sons of the priests prepared the confection of the spices.
1Ch 9:31 Mattithiah, one of the Levites, who was the firstborn of Shallum the Korahite, had the office of trust over the things that were baked in pans.
1Ch 9:32 Some of their brothers, of the sons of the Kohathites, were over the show bread, to prepare it every Sabbath.
1Ch 9:33 These are the singers, heads of fathers' houses of the Levites, who lived in the chambers and were free from other service; for they were employed in their work day and night.
1Ch 9:34 These were heads of fathers' houses of the Levites, throughout their generations, chief men: these lived at Jerusalem.
1Ch 9:35 In Gibeon there lived the father of Gibeon, Jeiel, whose wife's name was Maacah:
1Ch 9:36 and his firstborn son Abdon, and Zur, and Kish, and Baal, and Ner, and Nadab,
1Ch 9:37 and Gedor, and Ahio, and Zechariah, and Mikloth.
1Ch 9:38 Mikloth became the father of Shimeam. They also lived with their brothers in Jerusalem, over against their brothers.
1Ch 9:39 Ner became the father of Kish; and Kish became the father of Saul; and Saul became the father of Jonathan, and Malchishua, and Abinadab, and Eshbaal.
1Ch 9:40 The son of Jonathan was Merib Baal; and Merib Baal became the father of Micah.
1Ch 9:41 The sons of Micah: Pithon, and Melech, and Tahrea, and Ahaz.
1Ch 9:42 Ahaz became the father of Jarah; and Jarah became the father of Alemeth, and Azmaveth, and Zimri; and Zimri became the father of Moza;
1Ch 9:43 and Moza became the father of Binea; and Rephaiah his son, Eleasah his son, Azel his son.
1Ch 9:44 Azel had six sons, whose names are these: Azrikam, Bocheru, and Ishmael, and Sheariah, and Obadiah, and Hanan: these were the sons of Azel.