From Steve Singleton... What are the big events of Old Testament history?

What are the big events of Old Testament history?

In attempting to evaluate whether events recorded in the Old Testament rate as “big” I want to avoid subjectivism. “Big” should not just be what rates as “big” to me; we must reach for some objective standard–what the Bible itself rates as “big.” 

Here are three objective criteria for what should be considered a “big” event:
  • An event recorded in detail that takes the biblical author more than two chapters to tell.
  • An event recorded by more than one biblical author.
  • An event that had lasting effects
  • An event that the New Testament points out as significant.
By these criteria, the following certainly qualify as “big” events in the Old Testament.
  1. Creation (Gen. 1 – 2)
  2. The Fall (Gen. 3)
  3. The Great Flood (Gen. 6 – 9)
  4. The life of Abraham (Gen. 12 – 25)
  5. The life of Jacob (Gen. 25 – 36)
  6. The life of Joseph (Gen. 37 – 50)
  7. The Exodus from Egypt (Exodus – Deuteronomy)
  8. The conquest of Canaan (Book of Joshua)
  9. The life of David (1 and 2 Samuel, 1 Chron. 10 – 29)
  10. The building of Solomon’s Temple (1 Kings 5 – 8; 2 Chron. 2 – 7)
  11. The life of Elijah (1 Kings 17 – 2 Kings 2)
  12. The life of Elisha (2 Kings 2 – 13)
  13. The fall of Israel to the Assyrians (2 Kings 17)
  14. The deliverance of Jerusalem from the Assyrians (2 Kings 18 – 19; 2 Chron. 32; Isa. 36 – 37)
  15. The fall of Jerusalem to the Babylonians (2 Kings 25; 2 Chron. 36; Jer. 39)
  16. The return from Babylonian exile (2 Chron. 36; Ezra; Nehemiah; Zechariah; Haggai)
Of course, there are many other events of the Old Testament besides these. But these are the “big” ones. Old Testament literacy would assume that you know at least these events in some detail.

Want to go deeper?

The following are recommended to help you learn the “big picture” of the Old Testament.
Recommended for purchase:

Wilbur Fields. Old Testament History: An Overview of Sacred History & Truth (College Press, 1967; reprint: 1996)

Eugene H. Merrill. Historical Survey of the Old Testament (2nd ed., 1991)  Supports the accuracy of the Old Testament, presenting it as God’s revelation to the world through Israel, the chosen people.

Eugene H. Merrill. Kingdom of Priests: A History of Old Testament Israel (1996)  One of the best books on the history of Israel from a conservative perspective.

Online resources:

 with book and chapter references

Alfred Edersheim. Bible History: Old Testament (1890 edition)

Many thanks to brother Steve Singleton, for allowing me to post from his website, deeperstudy.com.

From Ben Fronczek... Taking Back What the Enemy Has Stolen

 Taking Back What the Enemy Has Stolen

John 10:10-11 

10 The thief comes only to steal and kill and destroy; I have come that they may have life, and have it to the full. 11 “I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep.”

We live in a land where things get stolen all the time. Statistics suggest we are a nation in trouble!  Examples:
  • More than $13 billion worth of goods are stolen from retailers each year. That’s more than $35 million per day.
  •  There are approximately 27 million shoplifters (or 1 in 11 people) in our nation today. More than 10 million people have been caught shoplifting in the last five years.
  • There is no profile of a typical shoplifter. Men and women shoplift about equally as often.
  • Shoplifters say they are caught an average of only once in every 48 times they steal. They are turned over to the police 50 percent of the time.
  • Habitual shoplifters steal an average of 1.6 times per week.
There are a lot of thieves in our country but I don’t necessarily want to focus on the natural today. In the spiritual realm, a kind of stealing is going on in many lives.   Satan is in the business of ripping off things that are ours.

Jesus said in JOHN 10:10 that the thief’s purpose is to steal and kill and destroy. But Jesus said, 

“I came that you may have life, and life to the full”.

But you know, Satan doesn’t need your car, he doesn’t need your house, or your money, or your trinkets. But he is interested in stealing Spiritual treasures from you and me. Things that have real value to us and God; and are of a eternal significance.

For example.

Our purpose for live. How many people are out there who see no purpose for their life? Too many, so they wind up turning to Drugs, alcohol meaningless relationships,  meaningless pleasure,  greed or something else…anything just to fill the void!

God made man to find fulfillment in Him. In our text this morning, Jesus said that He came that we have life, and life to the full.

The big question this morning is; how many of us can honestly say that you are experiencing this quality of life, this life to the full that Jesus is speaking of in this text?

What I am proposing this morning is that fact, that Satan, our enemy has been robbing us. Whether we recognize it or not, we are in war, where this enemy is attempting to destroy us by trying to:

1)    Rob and Undermine our relationship with God,                                   
2nd) Rob and Undermine our relationship with one another,                   
3rd)  Rob and Undermine our own peace of mind and God given fullness.         

Let’s consider these 3:
The Devil is attempting to Rob and undermine our relationship with God  

Yes we say we still love the Lord.  We still come to Church.
But some of us wonder what happened to all the energy and passion we had years ago?

I don’t think that zeal and our fire within just evaporated away. I think Satan finds a way to steals those hot embers, and our fire fades.  Some of us have just been ripped off!

Just like in the Parable of the Sower, Seed is sown on the path, and Jesus said that the Devil came and snatched them away.  Some might say, ‘well when I first became a Christian I was on fire, but I don’t know what happened.’

In 2 Corinthians 3:18 it says that all of us have had that veil removed so that we can be mirrors that brightly reflect the glory of the Lord. And as the Spirit of the Lord works within us, we become more and more like him and reflect his glory even more.
There is no end to the power God wants to exhibit in our lives. But some of us have been robbed, or we’ve been duped. We need to wake up be honest and admit what has really happened.

Maybe 5 or 10 years ago you were excited about your Christianity and ready to do just about anything to serve Jesus

But now you are discouraged, maybe somebody let you down, or maybe put you down, or maybe something went wrong in your life, in your home, where you work or in your church. Or maybe things haven’t turned out like you think that they should have. You tried to be positive, but soon the fire was gone and now it’s hard even to open your Bible or even go to church.  

Maybe even your relationship with God isn’t what it was.

That’s just what the devil wants, to steal away from you.  


The devil also wants to undermine and rob us of our relationships with one another to further destroy us. It’s like someone who  keeps knocking holes in our foundation. He knows that if our foundation crumbles so too will the house, and so too will our lives.  

He is tries to rob us of peace in our home, at work, and also in our churches. 

If we complain, argue, fight, gossip, say things we shouldn’t, feelings get hurt, and people leave. Jesus Himself said that a house divided can not stand (it won’t survive).

Its not that we’re not guilty of sinning sometimes, but who temps us in the first place… This is the reality of spiritual warfare!   Satan is patient and is slowly and tactfully trying to rob us of those we need and love the most.

Why is Satan so intent on breaking up families and churches? Because they offer us our greatest support and when we feel down, weak or discouraged.

And 3rd
 Satan also tries to rob us of our own peace of mind, so we don’t experience the life to the full that Jesus came to give us.

Instead of growing stronger and more mature in Christ as the years go by, he would have us doubt our self, doubt what we know, doubt our ability.

He wants us to think that God is mad at us. And therefore make excuses when it comes to serving, or teaching or leading. We don’t ever feel that we are good enough, because Satan has come in and robbed us of the confidence we should have in Christ, and he has robbed us of the reality and of the knowledge that God own Spirit abides in us. And he has robbed us without us even knowing it.

There is a story in 1 Samuel of David in the area of ZIKLAG
David and his men were away from home and Amalekite raiders came down to their town of Ziklag and burned it and then stole and carried off their families and possessions. When David and his army got back home and found that it was burned and all was gone, his men were very angry and ready to turn on him You can read about it in 1 Samuel. 30
At that point David was in serious trouble because his men were very bitter about losing their wives and children, and they began to talk of stoning him.

But then we see a wonderful phrase in 1 Samuel 30:6,  

“But David found strength in the LORD his God.”    In verse 8 it says, ‘David inquired of the LORD, “Should I pursue after this band of raiders? Will I catch them?”    And the LORD told him, “Yes, go after them. You will surely recover everything that was taken from you!”
And so they go after those thieves and in verse 18 and following it says that he recovered everything that was taken.

Why am I telling you this story?
Because a moment came when David and His men (with the Lord’s help)  

chose to get up and go after their stolen property!

And sometimes much in the same way we need to go on the offensive. We need to be mindful of what the devil is trying to take away from us and say, ‘wait a minute!  I’m am not going to let you rob me or undermine my relationship with my Lord, and my God. He still loves me. He still wants me to be his son/daughter. He still wants to give me a great inheritance.’

God is just as willing to work in our lives as He was with David and his men and He will help us get back what was taken and reveal His own glory in our life.  

No one, Satan, nor any one else has any right to rob or undermine our  relationship with God!

God can help you get that relationship and fire back! God can even help you get back or restore the peace and good relationships you should have with your family, in your home or with your friends. David and his companion did not sit around waiting for their women and children and stuff to return, they went after it. And we have to get up and do our best with God’s help to get back what we lost

Like David and his men you need to trust God and then go after it, and even say, ‘I love and need my wife and my kids. I love and need these people in my church, they are my spiritual brothers and sisters and mothers and fathers. I am not going to let Satan rob this from me. These relationships are too precious to loose, to be taken away. I am not going to let anyone rob me of my peace of mind and the life Jesus wants me to enjoy.

Listen to what the Apostle Paul writes in Colossians 3  (Read 3:12-17)  

Since God chose you to be the holy people he loves, you must clothe yourselves with tenderhearted mercy, kindness, humility, gentleness, and patience. Make allowance for each other’s faults, and forgive anyone who offends you. Remember, the Lord forgave you, so you must forgive others. Above all, clothe yourselves with love, which binds us all together in perfect harmony.  And let the peace that comes from Christ rule in your hearts. For as members of one body you are called to live in peace. And always be thankful.  Let the message about Christ, in all its richness, fill your lives. Teach and counsel each other with all the wisdom he gives. Sing psalms and hymns and spiritual songs to God with thankful hearts. 17 And whatever you do or say, do it as a representative of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks through him to God the Father.”

If you strive to obey these verses, there is no way Satan will rob you of your family at home nor at church. Satan wants to rob you of those relationship. But now that you know what he’s up to, do your best to take back those relationships by doing your best to repair them. And don’t give the devil another foothold.

And what about our own peace of mind? Has he robbed that from you too?
Don’t let him!  

Say to yourself, ‘God loves me so much, He was willing to let His Son die on the cross for me.’

If you are that important to God, you are worth a whole lot.  So stop doubting, stop criticizing yourself, and your ability. The devil wants you to do that.  The devil wants you to doubt, to fear, to question who you are and what you can do, so that maybe you won’t be any good to yourself or anyone else.


Jesus came that we may have life, a full life, where we can experience inner joy,  real peace and love, no matter what our circumstance. Don’t let Satan rob that from you!   

And if he has, just like David in I Samuel, go after what he has taken and find strength in the Lord, and go back and reclaim what is rightfully yours.

For more lessons click on the following link: http://granvillenychurchofchrist.org/?page_id=566

From Jim McGuiggan... Baptism: Bonfires and Passovers

Baptism: Bonfires and Passovers

1. The power of public ordinances is hard to exaggerate and it's only when we're not thinking or not thinking clearly that we dismiss them. All over Northern Ireland on the 11th and 12th of July bonfires burn, flags fly, people dance, curbs are painted, streamers flutter and tens of thousands march to selected locations to listen to passionate speakers defend the union between Northern Ireland and Great Britain. These celebrations keep alive the memory of two major battles (Boyne and Aughrim) which shaped the future of Northern Ireland. For those to whom the union is a passionate concern, the bonfires, marches and speeches are vitally important. They remind them who they are, what dangers they were rescued from and what their responsibilities are to those who will come after them. Others might despise the flag-waving and bonfires but no one who cherishes the union dismisses these public traditions.

2. The greatest secular holiday of the United States is 'Independence Day' (July 4th) when people get involved in fireworks displays, picnics, speeches, and all the trappings of a public festival. Foreigners might sniff at all this but no patriotic American ridicules these public acts which commemorate the birth of the new Republican nation.

3. Yom Kippur and Passover, two of the main public observances of the Jewish people, remind them who they are and what is required of them. By these and other ordinances and festivals their history is retold and their identity is preserved and their purposes are focused. It wouldn't enter the head of a pious Jew to dismiss these rites and ordinances. To despise them would be to despise the truths and the God they proclaim. To forget them would to be forget one's roots, heritage and identity. That's not hard to understand. What is hard to understand is the way many who profess allegiance to Jesus Christ can dismiss baptism (or Holy Communion) as of little consequence. In doing this, they not only set aside the strong witness of the New Testament and the early Church, they belittle a powerful voice for Christ. (More about this shortly.)

4. This belittling of baptism is a modern thing. It isn't viewed this way in the New Testament. (The famous British scholar, F.F. Bruce, reminded us that the New Testament book of Acts knows nothing of unbaptized Christians.) You only have to read the book of Acts to see the importance placed on it by the apostles and the early Church. Nor should we think that it lost its important place as soon as the apostles died. It did not. Believers in every age down the centuries acknowledged it to be what the New Testament teaching and practice claimed it to be. This is common knowledge among those who have read 'Church History' literature. All the illustrious people in church history, whatever their differences in details, insisted that this ordinance was from the Sovereign Lord and must be treated as such. We might pass by the witness of the Church down the centuries and rest only on New Testament writings but the single voice of interpreters down the years adds assurance that we're hearing the NT correctly.


5. Like every other public ordinance or festival, baptism proclaims the power of something or someone else. When ancient Jews put blood on their door-posts, they did so because of some prior truth or reality. (See Exodus 12 for yourself.) The act made sense because of the word they received from God. The bonfires in Northern Ireland make sense because of the victories of Aughrim and Boyne and the public celebrations in America on July 4th take their meaning and strength from the way democracy and full citizenship are received by the Americans.

6. This is true even at a personal level. A pair of baby shoes, an old photograph, a well-worn toy or a train ticket-any of these can keep alive and vibrant, memories which strengthen, cheer or inspire. Flora McDonald and her mother were buried in two sheets which were used only once before becoming their shrouds. 'Bonnie Prince Charlie' escaping from his enemies had spent the night in their home. When he left the two women reverently folded the sheets on his bed and put them aside for the day of their burial. 'Outsiders' would see only a worn out doll, a grubby train-ticket or a perfectly ordinary pair of bed-sheets. But to those who were in the know, these were 'sacraments'.

7. Baptism as an ordinance came from the Lord and those who trusted him and received him as Lord saw baptism as others couldn't. Those who wished to give their allegiance to him were baptized. Those who rejected him rejected baptism in his name. Those who saw baptism as something important and to be obeyed saw it that way because they saw something in him that filled the ordinance with deep significance and sacredness. They had no praise or reverence for baptism in and of itself because they never thought of baptism in and of itself. They thought of it in relation to him.

8. It would be a terrible mistake to isolate the ordinances and ceremonies from their origins. That would be contrary to what God wants. In Exodus 12:26, for example, we read: "And when your children ask you, "What does this ceremony mean?' then tell them..." The ordinances were not ordained so that Israel would have something to do-they told things about God, about his character and his rescuing Israel from slavery. It was part of Israel's failure that sometimes the rites were observed when their true significance had been forgotten and allegiance to one God (Yahweh) had vanished.

9. But they were meant to teach Israel of their roots; to remind them that they had not delivered themselves; to drum into their minds who had delivered them from what and to instruct them so they could live an ordered life under Yahweh. The rites and festivals, the ceremonies and sacrifices were not lifeless, joyless observances which 'had to be done because God commands them'. They were precious links with the past; they were national reminders of their continuing dignity and destiny. The Israelites felt honoured to be allowed to observe them and God, their God, was at the centre of all their humble submission


10. You can't baptize a believer without proclaiming the grace of God which was shown in the death, burial and resurrection of Jesus Christ (see 1 Corinthians 15:1-3).

11. In the centuries following the apostles, Christians occasionally built their baptisteries with eight sides. The number eight was well established as the number which spoke of 'a new beginning' or 'resurrection'. These early believers wanted to stress the 'resurrection' aspect of baptism as well as the death and burial aspects (see all three aspects in Romans 6:3-7). And the custom to have those being baptized enter the baptistery at one end and come out another and then to be robed in a white garment became common. Again, the death and resurrection aspects of baptism are prominent. In these ways the central events concerning the central figure of the Christian faith were heralded as part of the Christian faith each time a person was baptized.

12. From the very beginning, Christians have claimed that there is no other person but Jesus by whom people can be saved (Acts 4:12). That was what the Church witnessed to the world. They did it by their lives, by engaging in Holy Communion and in their teaching and proclamation. But they did it by the ordinance of baptism as well. Anyone who was baptized and anyone who witnessed it would hear the name of Jesus Christ associated with this person becoming a Christian.

13. You only need to read Acts 2:38; 8:12; 19:5; 22:16 and elsewhere to see how 'the name of Jesus Christ' is proclaimed at baptism. The 'name' of a person in Scripture stands for the person as it very often does with us.

14. Just before he returned to heaven, the resurrected Lord said this to his followers: "All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, and teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you. And surely I will be with you always, to the very end of the age." (Matthew 28:18-20).

15. Baptism is here aligned with the whole Godhead into whom believers are to be baptized. The Son not only commands that this be done by his authority, his name is rooted firmly in that awesome company. The ordinance bears witness to the exalted person and nature of him whom we know as Jesus of Nazareth.

16. This command is universal in scope. (It is for “all nations”.) It is timeless in duration. (He would be with them to do it “always, to the very end of the age.”) It is the desire and will of Christ himself. (“All authority...has been given to me. Therefore go...”) It should be enough that he has commanded it. It should be enough that he desires it. Both are true! Baptism cannot be administered without the Lordship of Jesus Christ being proclaimed. Since he desires it and has commanded it, we ought to gladly and humbly fulfil it.

From Mark Copeland.... Sound Doctrine For Young Men ( Titus 2:6-8)

                         "THE EPISTLE TO TITUS"

                  Sound Doctrine For Young Men (2:6-8)


1. Once more our text deals with "things which are proper for sound
   doctrine" - Tit 2:1
   a. Doctrine that is spiritually healthy, wholesome
   b. In this case, exhortations related to godly conduct

2. We have already considered...
   a. Conduct becoming older men, older women, young women - Tit 2:2-5
   b. Examples to inspire each to be fruitful in their service to the

[Now we turn our attention to...]


      1. The Greek word is sophroneo
         a. To be sane, in one's right mind
         a. By implication to be sober-minded, to think and act soberly,
            discreetly, to use sound judgment and moderation, to be
            self-disciplined - TCWD
      2. A related trait (sophron) enjoined upon:
         a. Older men (where it is translated as 'temperate') - Tit 2:2
         b. Young women (where it is translated as 'discreet') - Tit 2:5
      3. As translated by other versions:
         a. Self-controlled - ESV, NASB, NIV, NRSV
         b. Sensible - HCSB
      -- Young men are to have their minds and passions in control,
         exercising self-discipline

      1. Pattern (tupos)
         a. A prototype; particularly of a pattern or model after which
            something is to be made (cf. He 8:5) - TCWD
         b. Figuratively an example, pattern to be imitated, followed
            (cf. 1Ti 4:12) - ibid.
      2. Good works (kalos ergon)
         a. Good deeds, noble deeds, useful deeds
         b. In which Christ intends for us to be zealous - cf. Tit 2:14;
      -- Young men with their natural strength and zeal should set the
         pattern for good works

      1. Doctrine (didaskalia)
         a. Teaching, instruction - Thayer
         b. The art or manner of teaching, as well as that which is
            taught, may be under consideration
      2. Integrity (adiaphthoria)
         a. Incorruptibility, integrity, freedom from corruptible
            mixtures or adulterations - TCWD
         b. Titus was advised not to mix in his teaching anything that
            would in any way deprive Christian teaching of its eternal
            value and cause it to be relegated to second place - ibid.
      3. Reverence (semnotes)
         a. Gravity, honesty - Strong
         b. The manner in which a preacher delivers his message, should
            be such as to command respect. He should evince good sense,
            undoubted piety, an acquaintance with his subject,
            simplicity, seriousness, and earnestness, in his manner.
            - Barnes
      4. Incorruptibility (aphtharsia)
         a. Purity, sincerity, incorrupt - Thayer
         b. This word is omitted in some manuscripts, likewise in more
            recent translations
      -- Young men who teach are to be concerned with purity of doctrine
         and presentation

      1. Sound speech (hugies logos)
         a. Sound speech or doctrine, wholesome, right - TCWD
         b. To use language that would be spiritually "healthful"
            - Barnes
         c. Similar to "sound doctrine" in verse 1 - Tit 2:1
         d. Using speech that imparts grace to the hearers - cf. Ep 4:29; Col 4:6
      2. That cannot be condemned (akatagnostos)
         a. Blameless - Strong
         b. Irreprehensible, not worthy of condemnation, not to be
            condemned or blamed - TCWD
         c. Especially by those who seek to oppose us and speak evil of
            us - cf. Tit 2:5
   -- Young men are to also set the pattern in the kind of speech they

[Such is conduct becoming of young men.  Youth is no excuse for loose
conduct or careless speech.  On the contrary, young men are to set the
pattern for all Christians (cf. 1Ti 4:12).  As done previously, let's
now consider some...]


   A. JOSEPH...
      1. A young man betrayed by his brothers, sold as a slave in Egypt
         - Gen 37:1-36
      2. Maintained his integrity despite his circumstances - Gen 39:
      -- God used such a young man to save the nation of Israel from

   B. DAVID...
      1. In his youth, his faith in God overcame giants! - 1Sa 17:37,
      2. His integrity illustrated by his unwillingness to kill King
         Saul - 1Sa 24:1-15
      -- God made such a young man to be king over the nation of Israel

   C. DANIEL...
      1. In his teens, Daniel was honored to be trained for service to a
         king - Dan 1:3-6
      2. Yet he determined not to defile himself, even at the risk of
         his life - Dan 1:8-9
      -- God used such a young man to influence the most powerful man in
         the world!

   D. TIMOTHY...
      1. He assisted Paul as a young disciple - Ac 16:1-3
      2. His youth was to be no excuse - 1Ti 4:12
      3. He served Paul as a son, even to the last days of Paul's life
         - 2Ti 1:1-2; 4:6-9
      -- God used such a young man to help Paul spread the gospel and
         establish churches

      1. Young men who serve the Lord and His church with whatever
         abilities they have
      2. Young men who teach, preach, lead singing and prayers in the
         public assemblies
      3. Young men who resist temptation, seek the Lord's will in their
         life first
      -- Who will God use today?  Any young man who dares to follow the


1. Young men can do so much to benefit a local congregation...
   a. By their example, by their words
   b. By their zeal, by their strength

2. Let us be careful not to despise their youth...
   a. Just as Timothy was told not to let others despise his
      youthfulness - 1Ti 4:12
   b. Especially when they are engaged in the work of the Lord - cf.
      1Co 16:10,11

While we should long to have elders in every church (cf. Tit 1:5), so we
should be thrilled to have young men who are just as dedicated in their
service to the Lord...!

Executable Outlines, Copyright © Mark A. Copeland, 2011

From Gary... Bible Reading February 15

Bible Reading   

February 15

The World English Bible

Feb. 15
Genesis 46

Gen 46:1 Israel traveled with all that he had, and came to Beersheba, and offered sacrifices to the God of his father, Isaac.
Gen 46:2 God spoke to Israel in the visions of the night, and said, "Jacob, Jacob!" He said, "Here I am."
Gen 46:3 He said, "I am God, the God of your father. Don't be afraid to go down into Egypt, for there I will make of you a great nation.
Gen 46:4 I will go down with you into Egypt. I will also surely bring you up again. Joseph will close your eyes."
Gen 46:5 Jacob rose up from Beersheba, and the sons of Israel carried Jacob, their father, their little ones, and their wives, in the wagons which Pharaoh had sent to carry him.
Gen 46:6 They took their livestock, and their goods, which they had gotten in the land of Canaan, and came into Egypt--Jacob, and all his seed with him,
Gen 46:7 his sons, and his sons' sons with him, his daughters, and his sons' daughters, and he brought all his seed with him into Egypt.
Gen 46:8 These are the names of the children of Israel, who came into Egypt, Jacob and his sons: Reuben, Jacob's firstborn.
Gen 46:9 The sons of Reuben: Hanoch, Pallu, Hezron, and Carmi.
Gen 46:10 The sons of Simeon: Jemuel, Jamin, Ohad, Jachin, Zohar, and Shaul the son of a Canaanite woman.
Gen 46:11 The sons of Levi: Gershon, Kohath, and Merari.
Gen 46:12 The sons of Judah: Er, Onan, Shelah, Perez, and Zerah; but Er and Onan died in the land of Canaan. The sons of Perez were Hezron and Hamul.
Gen 46:13 The sons of Issachar: Tola, Puvah, Iob, and Shimron.
Gen 46:14 The sons of Zebulun: Sered, Elon, and Jahleel.
Gen 46:15 These are the sons of Leah, whom she bore to Jacob in Paddan Aram, with his daughter Dinah. All the souls of his sons and his daughters were thirty-three.
Gen 46:16 The sons of Gad: Ziphion, Haggi, Shuni, Ezbon, Eri, Arodi, and Areli.
Gen 46:17 The sons of Asher: Imnah, Ishvah, Ishvi, Beriah, and Serah their sister. The sons of Beriah: Heber and Malchiel.
Gen 46:18 These are the sons of Zilpah, whom Laban gave to Leah, his daughter, and these she bore to Jacob, even sixteen souls.
Gen 46:19 The sons of Rachel, Jacob's wife: Joseph and Benjamin.
Gen 46:20 To Joseph in the land of Egypt were born Manasseh and Ephraim, whom Asenath, the daughter of Potiphera, priest of On, bore to him.
Gen 46:21 The sons of Benjamin: Bela, Becher, Ashbel, Gera, Naaman, Ehi, Rosh, Muppim, Huppim, and Ard.
Gen 46:22 These are the sons of Rachel, who were born to Jacob: all the souls were fourteen.
Gen 46:23 The son of Dan: Hushim.
Gen 46:24 The sons of Naphtali: Jahzeel, Guni, Jezer, and Shillem.
Gen 46:25 These are the sons of Bilhah, whom Laban gave to Rachel, his daughter, and these she bore to Jacob: all the souls were seven.
Gen 46:26 All the souls who came with Jacob into Egypt, who were his direct descendants, besides Jacob's sons' wives, all the souls were sixty-six.
Gen 46:27 The sons of Joseph, who were born to him in Egypt, were two souls. All the souls of the house of Jacob, who came into Egypt, were seventy.
Gen 46:28 He sent Judah before him to Joseph, to show the way before him to Goshen, and they came into the land of Goshen.
Gen 46:29 Joseph made ready his chariot, and went up to meet Israel, his father, in Goshen. He presented himself to him, and fell on his neck, and wept on his neck a good while.
Gen 46:30 Israel said to Joseph, "Now let me die, since I have seen your face, that you are still alive."
Gen 46:31 Joseph said to his brothers, and to his father's house, "I will go up, and speak with Pharaoh, and will tell him, 'My brothers, and my father's house, who were in the land of Canaan, have come to me.
Gen 46:32 These men are shepherds, for they have been keepers of livestock, and they have brought their flocks, and their herds, and all that they have.'
Gen 46:33 It will happen, when Pharaoh summons you, and will say, 'What is your occupation?'
Gen 46:34 that you shall say, 'Your servants have been keepers of livestock from our youth even until now, both we, and our fathers:' that you may dwell in the land of Goshen; for every shepherd is an abomination to the Egyptians." 


From Gary... Different for a reason...

Last night about 9pm, I took my dogs for their last walk of the day.  Half way there, I realized that I was all bundled up. No big deal- except THIS IS FLORIDA!!!!  Over the last decade I have become accustomed to the warmer temperatures and now when the the thermometer hits the 40's, I bundle up.  And so, when I saw this picture, I thought- so what, we are all different. Consider the following passage from the book of 1st Corinthians...

1 Corinthians, Chapter 12
 27  Now you are the body of Christ, and members individually.  28 God has set some in the assembly: first apostles, second prophets, third teachers, then miracle workers, then gifts of healings, helps, governments, and various kinds of languages.  29 Are all apostles? Are all prophets? Are all teachers? Are all miracle workers?  30 Do all have gifts of healings? Do all speak with various languages? Do all interpret?

We are different; it is for a reason- God's reason!!!  Besides, if we were all the same... what would we do in a world with 8 billion people named ROSE, anyway????  From my perspective, one of me is more than enough.