Degrees of Judging
IntroductionWhen considering the question of proper Biblical judging, we often turn to this familiar verse:
“Judge not, that you be not judged.” (Matthew 7:1)While seeking to understand this passage as it was originally intended, we must be careful that subtle prejudicial needs do not bias our first impressions. Therefore, to vindicate our integrity and to truly ascertain God’s meaning, we should ask ourselves, “Was Jesus’ command generally prohibiting all judgment?” Many people teach Jesus was condemning all human judgment. Maybe you have heard this teaching since you were young and have never seriously considered any alternative? Therefore, let us test this conclusion with this challenge: “Does the verb, ‘judge’, always refer to the same kind or level of judgment in every instance throughout Scripture?” If there are various kinds or multiple degrees of judgment discussed in the Bible, then Matthew 7:1 may be limited in its prohibition, which would require closer examination of the context to determine which judgments are prohibited. If some judgments are mandated for Christians in other passages, then logically Matthew 7:1 must be interpreted as a limited prohibition. Given the obvious importance of these questions, both asking and answering them is essential for a clean conscience before God, especially if we take a dogmatic or public stance against judging in general.
Elsewhere we intend to examine the remote and immediate contexts to determine what kinds and degrees of judgment are condemned in Matthew 7:1. The purpose of this article, however, is to simply show that there are indeed multiple degrees, levels, or stages of judgment mentioned in Scripture. Moreover, this article will show that there is a spectrum of judgments — some of which Christians must make — that vary in nature by personal specificity and reversibility. Yet, there is a boundary line on this spectrum, a point beyond which Christians must not proceed. The degrees of judgment discussed in this article are:
- Discernment - Knowing Right from Wrong
- Internal Application - Transforming to Right from Wrong
- External Application - Recognizing Right from Wrong
- Patient Application - Teaching Right from Wrong
- Division - Separating Right from Wrong
- Ultimate Verdict - Saving Right from Wrong
A Brief Word Study ReviewThe Greek words, which are translated in the New Testament as “judge” and “judgment”, are studied in more detail in a separate article. Summarizing from that word study, although the word for “judgment” is most often used in reference to negative judgment, these words are otherwise unspecific regarding who is judging, what is being judged, how the judgment is formed, and what are the results of the judging process. Therefore, to assume any aspect and build it into the definition regardless of context ignores the varying usage, is presumptive, and will surely lead to misunderstanding of God’s Word. In other words, not all judgment is the same. We must examine the context of each usage to determine the specifics of each instance. Beyond this observation from the previous word study, and to help further substantiate that there are multiple degrees of judging and judgment, most of the verses cited in this survey use the same Greek words (or a very closely related variation) as used by Jesus in Matthew 7:1.
James used the exact same word, “judge” (κρίνω, or krino), as did Jesus in Matthew 7:1, except to refer to James’ process of forming a conclusion based on Scripture and related facts. Furthermore, his inference was corroborated by the Holy Spirit. Please note the following logical conclusion and its basis as emphasized by James:
And after they had become silent, James answered, saying, “Men and brethren, listen to me: Simon has declared how God at the first visited the Gentiles to take out of them a people for His name. And with this the words of the prophets agree, just as it is written ... Known to God from eternity are all His works. Therefore I judge [κρίνω (krino)] that we should not trouble those from among the Gentiles who are turning to God ... For it seemed good to the Holy Spirit, and to us, to lay upon you no greater burden than these necessary things: (Acts 15:13-28, see also: Acts 16:4; 21:25)If Matthew 7:1 is forbidding all forms of judgment, then both James and his example of analyzing, examining, discerning, determining, and judging the truth of God’s will is condemned - and for us! (For additional examples, please see: I Corinthians 2:2; 14:29; II Corinthians 5:14.) ... Now, some might argue that James was inspired; therefore, his example is not applicable to us. However, please notice that James did not decree God’s will by fiat from the Holy Spirit, instead by the Holy Spirit he left us an example of determining God’s will by logical inference from the Scriptures and the facts thereby sanctioning the reasoning process. Furthermore, inspired saints were not the only ones who either demonstrated or were expected to apply this same degree of judgment:
These were more fair-minded than those in Thessalonica, in that they received the word with all readiness, and searched [ἀνακρίνω (anakrino)] the Scriptures daily to find out whether these things were so. (Acts 17:11)Now, using such judgment does not necessitate that we may always reach the correct conclusion. In discerning the Bible, we may condemn that which God approves and approve what God condemns, as did even some first century people:
I speak as to wise men; judge [κρίνω (krino)] for yourselves what I say. (I Corinthians 10:15)
“Why should it be thought [κρίνω (krino)] incredible by you that God raises the dead?” (Acts 26:8)However, the possibility of mistaken judgments does not excuse us from diligently seeking to understand God’s Word (II Timothy 2:15; 3:14-17), neither does it excuse us from the eternal condemnation promised to those, who “twist to their own destruction ... things hard to understand ... also the rest of the Scriptures” (II Peter 3:15-18).
But Peter and John answered and said to them, “Whether it is right in the sight of God to listen to you more than to God, you judge [κρίνω (krino)]. For we cannot but speak the things which we have seen and heard.” (Acts 4:19-20)
One person esteems [κρίνω (krino)] one day above another; another esteems [κρίνω (krino)] every day alike. Let each be fully convinced in his own mind. (Romans 14:5)
For though by this time you ought to be teachers, you need someone to teach you again the first principles of the oracles of God; and you have come to need milk and not solid food. For everyone who partakes only of milk is unskilled in the word of righteousness, for he is a babe. But solid food belongs to those who are of full age, that is, those who by reason of use have their senses exercised to discern [διάκρισις (diakrisis)] both good and evil. (Hebrews 5:12-14)God’s Word can be understood, and given enough time with it, He expects us — even without inspiration — to have learned how to properly judge between “good and evil”. This is the first degree, stage, or level of judgment that all Christians must make before any other action can be taken. This realization not only obligates us with some degree of judgment, it necessitates that Matthew 7:1 must not be understood as a general prohibition against all forms of judgment, since God cannot lie (Titus 1:2).
“discern both good and evil” on a given matter, he is obligated to first apply that truth to himself. At this stage, God’s objective will has already been determined, but it still remains undetermined whether we as individuals have violated or obeyed God’s Word on a given subject. This level of judgment is essential for our own salvation!
Do you have faith? Have it to yourself before God. Happy is he who does not condemn [κρίνω (krino)] himself in what he approves [δοκιμάζω (dokimazo)]. But he who doubts [διακρίνω (diakrino)] is condemned [κατακρίνω (katakrino)] if he eats, because he does not eat from faith; for whatever is not from faith is sin. (Romans 14:22-23)This passage references three degrees of judgment. First, one judges, discerns, or “approves” a given behavior (the eating of meats in this case), which is the degree previously discussed. Second, having made this judgment, he then so eats without his conscience judging, “condemning”, or informing him of any error. This person eats in a clean conscience. In applying God’s Word to himself, he considers himself to be guiltless, and he is therefore “happy”. However, someone who “doubts” — continuing in the judgment process and unable to come to an honest conclusion — is guilty of “sin” if he eats, and he is therefore “condemned ... before God”, which is the last degree of judgment to be discussed in this article and observed in this passage. Therefore, we must examine ourselves and respond to our conscientious understanding of God’s Word; otherwise, we place our soul in jeopardy. Consequently, Matthew 7:1 again cannot be condemning all forms of judgment; otherwise, we would be inviting eternal condemnation from our Lord for failure to judge ourselves as required by Romans 14:22-23!
Furthermore, please consider this scripture:
For he who eats and drinks in an unworthy manner eats and drinks judgment [κρίμα (krima)] to himself, not discerning [διακρίνω (diakrino)] the Lord's body. For this reason many are weak and sick among you, and many sleep. For if we would judge [διακρίνω (diakrino)] ourselves, we would not be judged [κρίνω (krino)]. But when we are judged [κρίνω (krino)], we are chastened by the Lord, that we may not be condemned [κατακρίνω (katakrino)] with the world. (I Corinthians 11:31-32)This passage alone mentions four separate sources of judgment! Consequently, how can one believe that all judgments are the same and reason that for Jesus to have condemned one judging was to condemn all judging? In this passage we see that one must “discern the Lord’s body” — thinking, reasoning, and judging through the various implications of Jesus' great sacrifice. This is the first degree of judgment again, to identify God’s will for all. In light of God’s will as expressed through Jesus’ body, we must secondly and continually “judge ourselves”. (He gave His body completely for us. Are we sacrificing our bodies completely to him? Please also see: Romans 12:1-2.) Otherwise, we risk the last degree of judgment, eternal condemnation by the Lord.
Only briefly mentioned in the above passage, the Lord has provided intermediate sources of “chastening” and “judging” to help us recognize what we have yet to see in ourselves (Hebrews 12:5-11). Theses other sources of judgment are apparently less pleasant than self-judgment, which is preferred. Yet, these unpleasant sources of judgment may be avoided, if we will but only examine ourselves continually in light of God’s Word (Psalm 32:8-9; Proverbs 26:3; II Timothy 3:16-17). If we reject self-judgment and judgment from these other sources, then we will proceed to God’s eternal judgment rebelliously and without comfort — to “be condemned with the world”. Continuing with our primary theme, what other approved source of “judgment” and “chastisement” has the Lord provided, which lies on the spectrum between self-judgment and divine judgment?
James 4:17). It is self-evident that this degree of judgment is less pleasant for everybody involved. It would be happier for everyone, if each person would be diligent both in studying God’s Word and in self-correction. Recognizing that the ideal is not reality, how can one, who truly “loves his brother”, not seize every opportunity to “turn a sinner from the error of his way”, “save a soul from death”, and “cover a multitude of sins” (I John 3:14-17; James 5:19-20)? Jesus Himself recognized that it was right and proper for this degree of judgment to be exercised:
“... Tell Me, therefore, which of them will love him more?” Simon answered and said, “I suppose the one whom he forgave more.” And He said to him, “You have rightly judged [κρίνω (krino)].” (Luke 7:42-43)Elsewhere we will seek to better understand this “righteous judgment” of others, but suffice it to say here, Jesus not only approved but commanded that we perform some kind of “judgment” in reference to others, but He also declared it to be “righteous”! How can we therefore conclude that all forms of judgment — even judgment against others — is condemned, since Jesus mandates some form of such judgment here? Here upon the rock of John 7:24, all claims that Jesus condemned all forms of judgment in Matthew 7:1 — even against brethren — must be dashed, because here in John 7:24 Jesus not only commanded such judgment, but He commanded it must be performed thoroughly (“not according to appearance”)! Therefore, we must be open to interpreting Matthew 7:1 as something less than a general prohibition, lest we pit Scripture against Scripture and Jesus against Jesus.
“Did not Moses give you the law, yet none of you keeps the law? Why do you seek to kill Me? ... Do not judge [κρίνω (krino)] according to appearance, but judge [κρίνω (krino)] with righteous judgment [κρίσις (krisis)].” (John 7:19-24)
Please consider this additional passage:
And when she and her household were baptized, she begged us, saying, “If you have judged [κρίνω (krino)] me to be faithful to the Lord, come to my house and stay.” So she persuaded us. (Acts 16:15)Lydia, this first century convert begged the apostle Paul and his companions to stay at her house, and she constrained them based upon her plea for their judgment of her faithfulness! Please notice that Paul did not correct her. He did not teach her that Jesus had prohibited Christians to make such judgments based on Matthew 7:1. Instead, he was “so ... persuaded”. He implicitly made such a judgment and complied with her hospitality. Now, some may propose and argue that only Jesus and His inspired apostles and prophets could make such judgments, but please notice that all of Paul’s traveling company were “so ... persuaded”. Furthermore, looking back at John 7:19-24, we see that Jesus’ command to perform righteous judgment was not given only to His holy apostles and prophets, rather it was given even to an unrepentant mob, who would eventually crucify Him! Therefore, the grossest of consciences are not excused from such judgment, even though they may have become incapable because of their blindness. Others may argue that the judgment of Acts 16:15 was positive and approving. However, if one is able and authorized to make such positive judgments, then it is implied that occasionally some negative judgments will likewise be made, given that not everyone wearing the name of Christ is “faithful to the Lord”. One cannot make positive judgments without the ability to make negative ones, neither can he communicate positive judgments without the ability to also communicate negative ones, even if by absence of the positive. The ability and meaning of each is inseparable from the other, since one is the negation of the other.
Likewise, in Romans 3:7; I Corinthians 10:29; and Colossians 2:16; Paul corrected various people “judging” him or his readers. However, in each case he never corrected the fact that judgment was made or even that the judgment was negative. He always corrected the basis of the judgment. Why would he only correct the basis of such judgment, if every basis for judging another was always wrong?
And on some have compassion, making a distinction [διακρίνω (diakrino)]; but others save with fear, pulling them out of the fire, hating even the garment defiled by the flesh. (Jude 1:22-23 NKJV)As the two above translations indicate, it is difficult to know in the first case whether the person making the judgment or the person being judged has doubts and therefore warrants additional “compassion” and “mercy”. Regardless, Jude indicates that we must make some form of judgment upon others as in how we correct, rebuke, and rescue them.
And have mercy on those who doubt [διακρίνω (diakrino)]; save others by snatching them out of the fire; to others show mercy with fear, hating even the garment stained by the flesh. (Jude 1:22-23 ESV)
Likewise, Paul makes a similar observation:
Now we exhort you, brethren, warn those who are unruly, comfort the fainthearted, uphold the weak, be patient with all. (I Thessalonians 5:14)Although the above verse does not use any form of the word for “judge” or “judgment”, some judgment of others is necessarily implied in the above command. Who are the “unruly”? Who are the “fainthearted”? Who are the “weak”? Just because one is “weak”, we cannot assume he is “unruly”, neither can we assume that the “unruly” are “fainthearted”. Since we must treat each type of person differently (“warn” versus “comfort” versus “uphold”) based on these traits, we necessarily must judge others to see if they fit into one of these categories. Again, if Matthew 7:1 is taken to be a general prohibition, then we are prohibited from making such distinctions in our treatment of people, and we must treat all the same, regardless of their sin, history, attitude, desire, and response! Who can justify a general prohibition against judging, especially in light of Jude 22-23 and I Thessalonians 5:14?
Please note that in none of the above passages are Christians encouraged to turn a blind eye to sin. In every case, the sinner is to be treated patiently (“be patient with all”), but yet some corrective action must be taken. That is predetermined for all cases. It is the exact timing, wording, setting, and urgency that determines the expression of patient corrective love.
And you are puffed up, and have not rather mourned, that he who has done this deed might be taken away from among you. For I indeed, as absent in body but present in spirit, have already judged [κρίνω (krino)] (as though I were present) him who has so done this deed. In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, when you are gathered together, along with my spirit, with the power of our Lord Jesus Christ, deliver such a one to Satan for the destruction of the flesh, that his spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus. Your glorying is not good. Do you not know that a little leaven leavens the whole lump? Therefore purge out the old leaven, that you may be a new lump, since you truly are unleavened. ... But now I have written to you not to keep company with anyone named a brother, who is sexually immoral, or covetous, or an idolater, or a reviler, or a drunkard, or an extortioner — not even to eat with such a person. For what have I to do with judging [κρίνω (krino)] those also who are outside? Do you not judge [κρίνω (krino)] those who are inside? But those who are outside God judges [κρίνω (krino)]. Therefore “put away from yourselves the evil person.” (I Corinthians 5:2-13)Using the exact same Greek word that Jesus used to prohibit judging, κρίνω (krino), Paul commanded the Corinthians to “judge” the unrepentant brother in their midst, put him outside their midst, and to “not even eat with such a person”. How can we reason or conclude that Jesus was condemning all judgments against a brother, when Paul condemns the Corinthians for having not already rendered and executed the needed judgment against their brother?
Some might observe and rightly argue that Paul was using inspiration to make such a judgment. However, this ability is connected to his ability to make such a judgment remotely without firsthand knowledge of the facts (“I indeed, as absent in body but present in spirit, have already judged as though I were present ... In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, when you are gathered together, along with my spirit, with the power of our Lord Jesus Christ, deliver such a one”). Furthermore, Paul did not chastise them for not seeking his judgment or some other apostle’s inspired wisdom, rather he criticized them for not having already judged and acted (“you are puffed up, and have not rather mourned, that he who has done this deed might be taken away from among you”). Moreover, he provides them generic instruction, basis, and rationale for them to “judge those who are inside” and “to put away ... the evil person”. This is not a mysterious process that we are orphaned to perform without guidance and instruction. Paul told us who to “deliver to Satan” and why it must be done.
Some might propose that only the sins specifically mentioned here are subject to church discipline through public judgment and withdrawal of fellowship. However, Paul points to at least four generic principles, which extend well beyond these few sins:
- “Deliver such a one for the destruction of the flesh, that his spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus” — Are these the only sins that threaten the salvation of our soul? Are not the wages of any sin death (“Romans 6:23”)? Is not every sin a transgression of Christ’s law, and does not every transgression make us guilty of all of God’s law (I John 3:4; James 2:10-11; Matthew 7:21-23)? Therefore, how can we turn a blind eye to any sin, if we truly love our brother?
- “Do you not know that a little leaven leavens the whole lump? Therefore purge out the old leaven” — The public persistence of any sin weakens the resolve of the whole. The longer sin goes uncontested, the deeper the discouragement, despair, and apathy permeates into the heart of a community (Ecclesiastes 8:11). And, so it is in the church. Sin spreads among people, just as leaven spreads in a lump of dough until the entire church is eventually leavened. Or, is this cancerous aspect of sin unique to these six sins?
- “Therefore let us keep the feast, not with old leaven, nor with the leaven of malice and wickedness, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth.” — Again, do these six sins comprise the totality of “malice and wickedness”? Would other sins not defile “the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth”?
- “Do you not judge those who are inside? ...Therefore ‘put away from yourselves the evil person.’” — Paul concludes with a most generic instruction. Does our responsibility to “judge those who are inside” stop at these sins? Or, can no other sin make someone “evil”, which would therefore require “putting away”?
“Moreover if your brother sins against you, go and tell him his fault between you and him alone. ... If he refuses even to hear the church, let him be to you like a heathen and a tax collector”. (Matthew 18:15-17)Given this consistent, inspired Bible theme of Christians holding each other to the standard of God’s Word and disciplining those who are belligerent and unrepentant, how can we then continue to cling to any shred of integrity, while proclaiming that Jesus denounced all forms of human judgment in Matthew 7:1?
Now I urge you, brethren, note those who cause divisions and offenses, contrary to the doctrine which you learned, and avoid them. (Romans 16:17)
And have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness, but rather expose them. For it is shameful even to speak of those things which are done by them in secret. (Ephesians 5:11-12)
But we command you, brethren, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that you withdraw from every brother who walks disorderly and not according to the tradition which he received from us. ... And if anyone does not obey our word in this epistle, note that person and do not keep company with him, that he may be ashamed. (II Thessalonians 3:6-14)
Those who are sinning rebuke in the presence of all, that the rest also may fear. (I Timothy 5:20)
For men will be lovers of themselves, lovers of money, boasters, proud, blasphemers, disobedient to parents, unthankful, unholy, ..., lovers of pleasure rather than lovers of God, having a form of godliness but denying its power. And from such people turn away! (II Timothy 3:2-5)
For a bishop must be ... holding fast the faithful word as he has been taught, that he may be able, by sound doctrine, both to exhort and convict those who contradict. For there are many insubordinate, both idle talkers and deceivers, especially those of the circumcision, whose mouths must be stopped, who subvert whole households, teaching things which they ought not, for the sake of dishonest gain. One of them, a prophet of their own, said, “Cretans are always liars, evil beasts, lazy gluttons.” This testimony is true. Therefore rebuke them sharply, that they may be sound in the faith, (Titus 1:7-13)
Reject a divisive man after the first and second admonition, knowing that such a person is warped and sinning, being self-condemned. (Titus 3:10-11)
But we command you, brethren, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that you withdraw from every brother who walks disorderly and not according to the tradition which he received from us. ... And if anyone does not obey our word in this epistle, note that person and do not keep company with him, that he may be ashamed. Yet do not count him as an enemy, but admonish him as a brother. (II Thessalonians 3:6-15)Although such public action fundamentally changes the relationship between every member of a church and the one put away (“not even to eat with such a person”), there remains yet hope! His eternal fate is not yet fixed. He is not to be regarded “as an enemy”. Moreover, as Paul observed in I Corinthians 5:5, one purpose of such withdrawal from the erring is “that his spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus” (I Corinthians 5:5). Consequently, any such judgment by men that presumes to fix another’s eternal judgment has gone too far. It should be clear that if any sin jeopardizes man’s standing before God, then every sin does (I John 3:4; James 2:10-11; Matthew 7:21-23); however, that final standing is ultimately determined by God:
“Truly, these times of ignorance God overlooked, but now commands all men everywhere to repent, because He has appointed a day on which He will judge [κρίνω (krino)] the world in righteousness by the Man whom He has ordained. He has given assurance of this to all by raising Him from the dead.” (Acts 17:30-31)In addition to behaving in hope toward our erring brother, leaving an open door through which he might return and repent, we are strictly forbidden from closing this door for eternity. Only such judgment belongs to God:
And if you call on the Father, who without partiality judges [κρίνω (krino)] according to each one’s work, conduct yourselves throughout the time of your stay here in fear; (I Peter 1:17)
There is one Lawgiver, who is able to save and to destroy. Who are you to judge [κρίνω (krino)] another? (James 4:12)Beside being agents of hope, we are simply unqualified to make such judgments of eternal destiny:
But with me it is a very small thing that I should be judged [ἀνακρίνω (anakrino)] by you or by a human court. In fact, I do not even judge [ἀνακρίνω (anakrino)] myself. For I know nothing against myself, yet I am not justified by this; but He who judges [ἀνακρίνω (anakrino)] me is the Lord. Therefore judge [κρίνω (krino)] nothing before the time, until the Lord comes, who will both bring to light the hidden things of darkness and reveal the counsels of the hearts. Then each one’s praise will come from God. (I Corinthians 4:3-5)Even though the Corinthians were commanded a few verses later to “judge those inside”, here they are told to “judge nothing”. Is this a discrepancy? Actually, the context explains what initially seems inconsistent. They were instructed to “judge nothing before the time, until the Lord comes”. This forbidden judgment went far beyond self-examination, self-judging, and self-correction, because even the apostle Paul was unqualified to perform this forbidden judgment (“I do not even judge my self. For I know nothing against myself, yet I am not justified by this.”). This forbidden judgment extended into the realm in which only God is qualified to operate (“Then each one’s praise will come from God”). Incidentally, some have advocated broader fellowship and unity by first presuming which sins God will be willing to overlook in the final judgment. This passage indicates the folly of any such doctrine that would seek to operate from a basis of advance knowledge of God’s eternal judgment, regardless of the conclusion or motivation. We simply are unqualified to work from that perspective, except where God has already told us what He will do (I Corinthians 6:9-10; Galatians 5:19-21; John 3:5; Hebrews 11:6; I John 3:14-17, for example). We must focus on teaching and obeying what has been delivered to us, while leaving the rest up to God (Deuteronomy 29:29).
ConclusionThe broad usage of the words, “judge” and “judgment”, throughout New Testament Scripture indicate that there are multiple degrees of judgment progressing along a spectrum from the objective, general, impersonal, honorable, pleasant, and trivially reversible toward the ultimately specific, personal, shameful, horrific, and eternally irreversible. Therefore, it is incumbent upon us to thoroughly and meticulously judge the context of each usage to ensure a scripturally consistent understanding. This broad usage not only destroys the false notion that Jesus generally prohibited human judgment in Matthew 7:1, but our survey has also shown that some judgment of our brethren is not only permitted — it is even commanded of us! Will we recognize this broad, varying usage? Will we accept this burden of love and responsibility to obey? “For if we would judge ourselves, we would not be judged; but, when we are judged, we are chastened by the Lord, that we may not be condemned with the world” (I Corinthians 11:31-32).
Questions, comments, or feedback? Please contact us through this form.
AcknowledgmentsThe idea for this article came from a comment made by Jim Everett on the “Three Stages of Judging” during a class on James. His book, Practical Living: A Workbook and Commentary on James, contains this explanation:
4:11 — The Greek word “krino” (judge) involves stages of thought. Its most basic meaning is that of “separation.” The first stage of thought is what we might call “discernment” — this refers to the ability to differentiate between good and evil. Note 1 Cor. 2:14-15, where “anakrino” is translated “discerned” in v. 14, but “judgeth” in v. 15. Consequently, one who discerns is a judge. The second stage of thought is that one who properly differentiates between good and evil, approves of the good and condemns the evil — that condemnation is judging. And finally, the third stage is that of a final separation which involves an assignment to an eternal state. (Everett, Practical Living, p. 60)